Paroxysmal tachycardia: symptoms, causes, treatment
Sometimes the heart rate is "unreasonable" increases — doctors fix within one minute 140-250 beats. This is paroxysmal tachycardia. While heart rhythm is regular and proper. Bouts of palpitations occur under the influence of ectopic pulse, the normal sinus rhythm is replaced completely by them.
Typically, the generation of ectopic impulses occur in the ventricles, the atrioventricular connection, or the Atria. Paroxysmal tachycardia doctors will relate to the types of arrhythmias. We have to examine this pathology in all the details and figure out how to deal with it. But before that try to understand the overall picture of pathology.
The disease pattern and its classification
Paroxysmal tachycardia is (mostly) ventricular and supraventricular. In this article we will consider the second option. There are three classifications of the disease. The mechanism of development allows to allocate reciprocal, and multi-focal ectopic (focal) form of tachycardia. The character of the course of the disease can be acute, recurrent or chronic.
As for localization, the tachycardia is divided into:
- the atrioventricular.
If diagnosed paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, the termination control heart rate pulse source. The signals begin to come from the "wrong" focus of automatism.
Localized this lesion may in the atrial or atrioventricular regions. In other words, the nidus is above the heart ventricles. This is the first mechanism of occurrence of problems.
The second mechanism is associated with the circulation of momentum, "travelling" within a closed circle. Such circulation causes abnormally inflated heart rate. Doctors call this phenomenon "re-entry" field.
This condition is characterized by paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, it is caused by the pulse "roundabout" ways.
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
Actually, this is a group of diseases characterized by cardiac arrhythmias. The source of the problem may be hiding in the sinoatrial or atrioventricular nodes as well as in the region of the Atria. "Roundabout" ways we mentioned above. Have supraventricular tachycardia also has its own classification:
- A spontaneous sinus tachycardia. The rhythm of the heart is constantly racing. Among the reasons —emotional stress, physical stress, congenital abnormalities, the use of toxic substances and certain medications. Patients complain of syncope, dizziness, lack of oxygen, chest pain and palpitations.
- Sinus nodal reciprocal pathology. The rhythm quickens attacks. Initial pathology is often sinus bradycardia. Symptoms of the paroxysms are mild, but suffer from the disease can not only men and women of advanced age, but little children.
- Atrial focal tachycardia. Rhythmic impulses sent to the Atria, based on a focus of excitation. Pathology occurs on the background of infectious lesions of the myocardium, cardiopulmonary (chronic) anomalies, cardiomyopathies, and heart attack. Provocateurs are hyperextension fibrillation, acidosis, alkalosis, hypoxia, overdose of Digitalis and hypokalemia.
- Multifocal atrial tachycardia. This kind of arrhythmia occurs on the background of lung pathology complicated by hypoxia and electrolyte imbalance.
- Atrioventricular nodal variety. The leader of popularity. Usually this disease affects women, whose age crossed the 32-year milestone. The main causes ischemic heart disease, heart defects, arterial hypertension. Nodal tachycardia provoke alcohol, Smoking and stress, physical activity, cardiac glycosides and caffeine.
The causes of pathology
Pathology has a multifactorial nature. This means that the causes of paroxysmal tachycardia are numerous and very diverse. Of course, to consider they need to cut the above classification, but the General trends we can identify.
Should avoid alcohol and any drugs. Contact with toxic substances (domestic and industrial) should be immediately eliminated.
Timely diagnosis of tachycardia may save your life. Also recommended for secondary prevention - the exclusion of physical and mental stress and the already mentioned bad habits.
This includes the appointment of antiarrhythmic and sedative drugs. Don't forget to breathe fresh air and to have an active lifestyle.
Probable complications and prognosis
If the rate exceeds 180 beats, there is a risk of ventricular fibrillation. With heart failure and impaired rhythm to be trifled with. You are fortunate today, not tomorrow.
Here is a list of possible complications:
- pulmonary edema;
- cardiogenic shock;
- myocardial infarction;
The most optimistic forecasts relate to the essential forms of supraventricular disease. The majority of patients retains the ability to work and confronts arrhythmias. In medical practice, documented cases of healing. With regard to supraventricular tachycardia, it all depends on the effectiveness of treatment of the underlying disease.
Ventricular form is threatened by the negative Outlook. Pathology of the myocardium progresses, and among the consequences of greatest danger represent extensive ischemia, acute infarction, primary cardiomyopathy, recurrent myocarditis, and severe myocardial. If complications do not exist, patients can survive for several decades.
Death may overtake the patient undergoing surgery or a sudden clinical death, as well as those suffering from congenital cardiac malformations. Be careful, watch your health!