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Arrhythmia: types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment


If the frequency and regularity of heart contractions does not correspond to the standard norms, you can be diagnosed with a heart arrhythmia. In essence, it is organic lesion as the result of intoxication, functional failures of the nervous system or violations of water-salt balance.

Dangerous cardiac arrhythmias and how we can deal with it? We will explore the causes, symptoms and methods of treatment of this disease.

Classification pathology

Before we talk about the nature of the disease, you need to study its variations. There are several groups of factors that lead our body to a state of arrhythmia. Each type of this disease has its own symptoms. The disease can lay down calcium and magnesium imbalance, industrial and bacterial background, addictions (nicotine, alcohol), anoxia.

синусовая брадикардия

Normal heart rhythm.

Lose endocrine organs in the future could affect the heart muscle. Side effects from a number of drugs can also be the cause of the disease. Types of arrhythmias based on violations of certain heart functions. There are four varieties of this disease:

  • sinus arrhythmia;
  • sinus bradycardia;
  • paroxysmal tachycardia;
  • sinus tachycardia.

Sinus bradycardia

The slow heart rate is one of the key symptoms of sinus bradycardia. This pathology affects the sinoatrial node serves as the inductor of electrical impulses. Heart rate drops to 50-30 shock/min. Pathology is quite dangerous - it is often found in apparently healthy people undergoing routine medical examination.

The reasons are different, but most of them lies in the congenital genetic abnormalities (reduced nodal automaticity).

Синусовая аритмия

The risk group includes professional athletes. Regular exercise regime change their blood circulation and energy metabolism. However, the reasons for changes in the rhythm are very diverse. Here they are:

  • starvation;
  • imbalance of the nervous system (autonomic division);
  • hypothermia;
  • nicotine and lead intoxication;
  • infectious diseases (typhoid, jaundice, meningitis);
  • the increase in intracranial pressure in tumors and edema of the brain;
  • the effects of some medications (digitalis, beta-blockers, verapamil, quinidine);
  • sclerotic changes of the myocardium;
  • dysfunction of the thyroid gland.


Heart rate increases sharply, exceeding the mark of 90 beat/min Sinus node sets the rhythm, and heart rate increases to 160 beats. This figure decreases gradually. Usually rapid rhythm - a consequence of physical exertion, this is normal. Pathology is manifested in the fact that the patient feels an abnormal heartbeat alone.

диагностика сердца

When you may need treatment for sinus arrhythmia? To determine the "fatal line" alone will not work - for this you need to consult a professional cardiologist. Recording an ECG, the doctor asks the patient to hold their breath. In this case, respiratory arrhythmia disappears and there is only a sinus. The pathological form of the disease is rare - a sign of heart disease.

Paroxysmal tachycardia

Heart rate when the disease is more frequent/slow down suddenly attacks. The right rhythm is maintained for a long period, but sometimes there are anomalies. The source of the failure can be localized in different areas of the heart - this depends on heart rate.

Pulse adults often accelerate up to 220 beats, in children up to 300. The duration of the paroxysms is also different - the attacks are in seconds or take hours.

Causes of tachycardia lie in the launch of the focus of increased automaticity and abnormal circulation of the impulse. At the core of the diseases can be damage to myocardial - sclerotic, necrotic, inflammatory and degenerative. Symptoms can manifest as nausea, dizziness and weakness.

Here are the main factors influencing the clinical picture:

  • the contractile state of the myocardium;
  • heart rate;
  • the duration of the heartbeat;
  • ectopic localization of the driver;
  • the duration of the attack.

Causes of heart ailments in atrial fibrillation

We did not mention another form of the disease - atrial fibrillation, also called atrial fibrillation. The atrium in this case tremble, and the ventricles get 10-15% less blood. Comes already considered by us above as tachycardia. The patient fully knows what is an arrhythmia - heart rate increases to 180 beats.


The irregularity of heart rate may take other forms. The pulse drops to 30-60 bumps - the doctors stating bradycardia. Similar symptoms could result in the use of a pacemaker.

List the main causes of atrial fibrillation:

  • hormonal disorders (Hashimoto thyroiditis, nodular goiter);
  • heart failure;
  • defect of the heart or its valves;
  • high blood pressure;
  • diabetes and associated obesity;
  • lung disease (asthma, bronchitis, tuberculosis, chronic pneumonia);
  • excessive consumption of alcohol;
  • a number of medications;
  • wearing tight clothing;
  • diuretics.

Risk factors

Causes of all forms of pathology are quite similar. Most of them are the result of some diseases, incorrect lifestyle or have a hereditary character. After analyzing the sources of heart failure, the doctors brought the major risk factors.

Here they are:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • high blood pressure;
  • thyroid disease;
  • electrolyte disorders;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • the use of stimulants.

Most of these factors we discussed above. To electrolyte disorders can cause the wrong food - the food must contain calcium, sodium, magnesium and potassium.

Banned stimulants primarily caffeine and nicotine due to them developing extrasystoles. Subsequently, ventricular fibrillation can cause sudden cardiac death.

Recognition of arrhythmias and symptoms

Symptoms of tachycardia and bradycardia have some minor differences. Cardiac arrhythmia initially develops in a hidden form, does not prove itself. Later symptoms indicating arterial hypertension, cardiac ischemia, brain tumors and thyroid disease. Here are the main signs of arrhythmias:

  • dizziness;
  • weakness;
  • shortness of breath;
  • fatigue;
  • the darkening of the eyes;
  • the border States of the brain (patient feel that he's about to lose consciousness).

If you are experiencing prolonged loss of consciousness, lasting about 5-10 minutes, you can "trim" the bradycardia. Such fainting is not inherent in this form of arrhythmia. Of symptoms are somewhat different and at first resemble a common ailment. They look as follows:

  • shortness of breath;
  • heart palpitations;
  • fatigue;
  • General weakness.

Methods of diagnostic research

The alleged symptoms of arrhythmia need scrutiny. To an alarming signs can include not only palpitations, but also sudden stopping of the heart, changes in blood pressure, weakness, alternating with drowsiness.

  • heart attack;
  • angina;
  • lethal.
  • a stroke of the brain.

How to strengthen heart

To get rid of impending disaster, do not have the packs to absorb the pills. Prevention boils down to correct diet and quitting certain bad habits.

According to statistics, at risk are smokers, among them, the disease occurs much more often. In addition to the withdrawal from nicotine, there are other preventive measures:

  • shaping;
  • fitness;
  • evening runs;
  • walks in the fresh air;
  • adding to the diet fruit, vegetables and various cereals;
  • the lack of fights and nervous breakdowns.

Lead a regular life. Be careful to avoid conflicts with loved ones. Treatment of arrhythmia you won't need if you eat right, breathe fresh air and to move actively. Quit Smoking - you will be a deep and happy old age.