Home / Diseases associated with vascular dysfunction of the heart / Atherosclerotic heart disease

Atherosclerotic heart disease


Atherosclerosis of the aorta of the heart and other major blood vascular, refers to chronic diseases. The disease begins with disorders of lipid metabolism that causes the formation of atheromatous plaques, and ends with the growth of deposits and narrowing of the lumen of the artery up to the blockage.

The structure of the aorta

диагностика аорты сердца

Aorta leaves from the left ventricle, curves the arc and is directed down.

Arc distinguish the ascending and descending part. From the first branch off of the artery that provides blood circulation in the thoracic spine: this includes the arteries of brain and spinal cord. From the descending part of the arteries leave the abdominal Department, serving the digestive and excretory system.

Aorta refers to a category of elastic-type vascular, has the large work section. Violations in its work threaten the very existence of man.


Atherosclerosis vascular of the heart must be distinguished from arteriosclerosis, in which cholesterol plaques are not formed, and calcification is observed in the secondary shell. It is characterized by the formation of an aneurysm. The mechanism of atherosclerosis is somewhat different.

There are the following stages of development of the disease.

  • Stage lipid spots - normally the artery wall is formed by a single - celled layer of endothelium, which are cells of smooth muscles. The latter is immersed in the extracellular fluid. In the first stage of the disease this balance is disturbed due to the accumulation on the walls of the lipoproteins of low and very-low-density - "bad cholesterol". Accumulate protein by binding to the intercellular substance, and then gets the opportunity to enter into the chemical reaction of oxidation.

In contrast to plasma, intima has little antioxidants, which makes the reaction possible. In the end, the wall formed a stable lipid formation.

  • Liposcelis normal blood flowing in vascular is laminar, which automatically reduces the probability of formation of deposits. While in the endothelium secretes nitric oxide - NO, which acts as a vasodilator. However, in areas of branching the laminar flow is disturbed, which contributes to the accumulation of lipoproteins. LDL, in turn, provoke an increased production of cytokines and adhesion molecules. The latter contribute to the infiltration of leukocytes into the intima of the vessel, and the lipid spot is growing.

To further increase contribute to the monocytes. Along with LDL, they form foam cells filled with lipids. This education is already enoughlarge to interfere with the normal flow of blood.

There are two possible scenarios: if LDL ceases to flow in large quantities, the foam cells gradually being removed by macrophages. If not, the plaque continues to grow, izyaslava wall of the vessel and reducing their elasticity. Atherosclerosis vascular of the heart is really to heal and on 1 and on 2 stages due to changes in diet and simple dosage of sorbents.

  • Atherocalcinosis - the widening and sealing of plaques triggers calcification - deposition of calcium salts in the formation. In addition, the plaque begins to grow into so-called vascular of the vascular - those that supply the blood flow in the artery in both the existing body, not a blood line. They increase the migration of leukocytes and provoke a more dangerous complication is hemorrhage inside the plaques. The last and leads to thrombosis.

The growth of the formations leads to a reduction of the vessel lumen, which, given the role of the aorta leads to serious consequences: ischemia of the heart and other internal organs, thrombosis, stroke, coronary insufficiency. Treatment necessary and possible at all stages.


The worst feature of the lesions of the aorta is prolonged absence of signs of disease. The aorta is the largest artery, due to the large diameter of the constriction of her channel for a long time almost no effect on functionality. Due to the high elasticity of the walls of the artery continues its work, even with a strong reduction of the working lumen.

As a result, the symptoms of the disease occur much later, when the vessel wall has already undergone significant changes, and treatment is complex and lengthy.

диетические продукты

Atherosclerotic heart disease is detected or as a result of the survey, or after the appearance of complications. Depending on the localization of the symptoms there are different.

With the defeat of the thoracic aorta:

  • there is a strong burning pain - orchalgia. Unlike angina the pain lasts a few hours or days and is not removed by nitroglycerin medications. Pain radiates to interscapular region, shoulder, left and right hand;
  • dizziness, transient headache - worsening of blood supply of the brain;
  • increased blood pressure;
  • observed hoarseness and difficulty swallowing in the absence of catarrhal symptoms.

Non-specific signs include the appearance of white bumps on the face, premature aging, the appearance of bright streaks on the iris.

Symptoms of atherosclerosis of the abdominal calvingthe following:

  • abdominal pain after eating. Are themselves in 2-3 hours. Treat them with the means to improve the activities of the stomach it is useless;
  • indigestion, alternating diarrhea and constipation;
  • wandering pains in the umbilical region, unexplained lameness, numbness of the lower extremities, the appearance of the ulcers;
  • progressive weight loss - indicates serious violations of.

Treatment depending on the severity of the lesion may be medical or surgical. Atherosclerosis heart the most important is often not so much the selection of appropriate drugs, as the discovery of the disease.

Treatment of atherosclerosis

As is evident from the clinical picture of the disease to restore normal functioning of the aorta, the most important is the removal of atherosclerotic plaques. And as the latter are formed and maintained constant influx of LDL, the treatment of atherosclerosis of the aorta begins with diet modification. No drugs you cannot restore the lipid balance, if you constantly break it by eating foods with a high content of LDL.

Non-pharmacological methods

Atherosclerotic heart disease - one of many, but it is very significant diseases that can be successfully treated with folk remedies, but rather speaking techniques conducive to the organization of a healthy regime.

  • The rejection of alcoholic beverages and Smoking - and, if the first ban has exceptions red wine not earlier than 6-8 months, the second is absolute.
  • The diet is based on the content of cholesterol in foods - the stricter it is kept, the better the result.
  • Physical activity and load should increase.
  • Psychological comfort is as strong feelings and long-lasting pressure impact on the work of the heart.
  • Weight loss - the higher the weight, the greater load experienced vascular and in atherosclerotic lesions, they are so weakened.

Anti-sclerotic diet

The basis of it is the so-called Mediterranean or its variations. In addition to choosing products with a minimal amount of cholesterol, it involves food with lots of fiber to enhance bowel function.

  • Fats from unsaturated acids. It's canola, olive, sunflower oil. Any animal fat other than fish. Coconut oil, by the way, or the palm also applies to the fats of polysaturated acids, and therefore does not apply.
  • Proteins - lean chicken and other poultry without skin, veal. But allowed fatty fish - salmon, sardines, trout and so on. Fatty meats and pates and sausagesexcluded. Allowed low-fat dairy products, nuts, limited edition - cream and sour cream.

The egg isn't a terrible source of cholesterol, how often think. 1 egg a day can be consumed without fear.

  • Starchy foods are prohibited. This excludes potatoes, corn, yams, and other white refined bread, cereals, like manna. Permitted pasta from durum wheat, other cereals. You can eat bread made of coarse flour, bran, dry biscuits without the cream.
  • Vegetables and fruits - especially orange needs to be on the menu every meal.
  • From a variety of medical tables, the diet prescribed in atherosclerosis vascular of the heart is one of the most full and healthy. Only one well-balanced diet will provide the best treatment at the first stage.

Folk remedies

It is important to understand that the treatment of folk remedies gives a good result in the first stages of development of disease, in the absence of complications and concomitant diseases.

  • Reception 3 tablespoons of oil in polyunsaturated acids - sunflower, olive, serves as a good prevention and help to reduce LDL. However, the organization of a healthy food, nevertheless, is more fulfilling method.
  • Honey or a mixture of equal parts honey, vegetable oil and lemon juice, taken on an empty stomach, 1 teaspoon.
  • Juice one potato, adopted on an empty stomach in the morning is also a good tool. And it is the juice, not the potatoes: a solid component of the vegetable contains a lot of starch.
  • Juice of red currants, taken before meals, or a mixture of Aronia with sugar helps to treat atherosclerosis.

Very wide treatment of folk remedies is using garlic. It is used in the form of tinctures - red wine allowed, but infused vodka is totally incompatible with the principles of treatment, in the form of mixtures with honey, nuts, juice and vegetable oil.

The fascination of folk remedies to apply these methods, you can, but with caution. Thus, a mixture of garlic with olive oil or honey is permissible - in the absence of Allergy. But mix with butter and use together with the bread and potatoes are strictly prohibited: all products are mixtures, with the exception of the garlic that contain large amounts of LDL.


Its main goal is the normalization of the lipid spectrum, i.e., lowering LDL and raising HDL.

  • Drugs that reduce the degree of absorbability of cholesterol - antibrane resins, vegetable sorbents, and so on.
  • Tools preventing the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver, statins (mevacor, medostatin),fibrates (miskleron, tricor). Statins have a number of such effects, fibrates are more secure, but the most effective treatment involves a combination of medicines.
  • Drugs that increase catabolism - that is, contributing to the rapid withdrawal of lipoproteins. This unsaturated fatty acid in its purest form - linetol, LIPOSTABIL.
  • Angelicrose - lower cholesterol directly on the walls of blood vascular.

Surgical correction is resorted to in cases where a complication occurred to threaten the life of the patient, and no time to wait for anti-sclerotic plaques will be removed in another way. Also surgical treatment is indicated for critical values of the narrowing and change of the tortuosity of the vessel.

Aortic atherosclerosis is often called the disease of the age, which is absolutely illegal. This disease develops very long, but in most cases at a rather advanced age. Here the timely diagnosis of the disease provides 100% treatment.