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How dangerous is mitral valve prolapse heart


One of the most common cardiac diseases is mitral valve prolapse. What does this term mean? The normal heart looks like. The left atrium is compressed to eject blood, flaps of the valve at this time open, and blood passes into the left ventricle. Then the doors are closed, and the reduction of the ventricle forces the blood forward into the aorta.

If prolapse of the valve of the blood at the time of contraction of the ventricle goes back into the atrium because the prolapse is bending, which makes it impossible shutters are normally closed. Thus, there is a reverse casting of blood (regurgitation), and mitral insufficiency develops.

Why develop a pathology

Mitral valve prolapse is a problem, often occurring in young subjects. Age 15-30 years, the most typical diagnosis of the problem. Causes pathology is completely unclear. In most cases, the PMK is found in people with abnormalities of connective tissue, e.g., dysplasia. One of its signs may be increased flexibility.

For example, if a person easily bends the thumb on the hand in the opposite direction and pulls them up to the forearm, then the probability of the presence of one of the pathologies of the connective tissue and PMK.

So, one of the causes of mitral valve prolapse - congenital genetic disorders. However, perhaps the development of this condition due to acquired reasons.

Acquired causes PMK

  • Coronary heart disease;
  • Myocarditis;
  • Various ides cardiomyopathy;
  • Myocardial infarction;
  • Calcium deposits on the mitral ring.

As a result of disease processes disturbed blood supply to the heart, is the inflammation of its tissues, cell death with replacement of them by connective tissue, induration of the valve and its surrounding structures.

пролапс клапана сердца

All this leads to changes in the tissue of the valve, damage to the controlling muscles, causing the valve is completely closed, that is, there is a prolapse of his wings.

Dangerous PMK

Although mitral valve prolapse is a heart disease, in most cases, the Outlook is positive, and symptoms are observed. PMK is often diagnosed accidentally during ultrasound of the heart during preventive examination.

PMK manifestations depend on the degree of prolapse. Symptoms if the regurgitation is severe, which is possible in cases of severe deflection of the valve leaflets.

Most people with PMK, do not suffer from this pathology does not affect themof life and health. However, when second and third degree prolapse the possible discomfort in the heart area, pain, violations of rhythm.

In the most severe cases, develop complications associated with blood circulation and degradation of the heart muscle due to the stretching during reverse casting of blood.

Complications of mitral regurgitation

  • Rupture of the heart chords;
  • Infective endocarditis;
  • Myxomatosis changes the valve leaflets;
  • Heart failure;
  • Sudden death.

The last complication is extremely rare and may occur if the PMK is combined with ventricular arrhythmias that are life-threatening.

Degree of prolapse

  • 1 degree - valve sash SAG 3-6 mm,
  • 2 the degree of deflection not more than 9 mm,
  • Stage 3 - more than 9 mm.

So, most often mitral valve prolapse is not dangerous, therefore, to treat it is not necessary. However, significant severity of disease people are in need of a thorough diagnosis and assistance.

What is the problem

Mitral valve prolapse is manifested by specific symptoms with significant regurgitation. However, when questioning patients with the identified PMK even the most slight degree, it appears that people have many complaints of minor ailments.

These complaints are similar to problems encountered in vascular or neurocirculatory dystonia. Because this disorder is diagnosed often in conjunction with mitral regurgitation, it is not always possible to distinguish between the symptoms, however, the decisive role in the changes being given PMK.


All problems, pain or discomfort resulting from mitral regurgitation associated with deterioration of hemodynamics, i.e. blood flow.

Since in this pathology of the blood is thrown back into the auricle, but does not come into the aorta, the heart has to do extra work to ensure the normal blood flow. Extra burden will never benefits, it leads to faster wear and tear of tissues. Besides, regurgitation leads to enlargement of the Atria due to the presence there of an additional portion of blood.

As a result of overflow with the blood of the left atrium there is an overload of all the left heart, increases the force of its contractions, because you need to cope with the extra blood. Over time can develop hypertrophy of the left ventricle and atrium, which leads to increased pressure in the vascular passing through the lungs.

If the pathologic process continues to develop, the pulmonary hypertension causesright ventricular hypertrophy and insufficiency of the tricuspid valve. Symptoms of heart failure. The picture described is characteristic of mitral valve prolapse 3 degrees, in other cases, the disease is much easier.

The vast majority of patients the symptoms of mitral valve prolapse note the periods of palpitation, which may be of different strength and duration.

One third of patients periodically feel the lack of air they want to breath was deeper.

Among the more aggressive symptoms may be noted loss of consciousness and pre-existing conditions.

Quite often mitral valve prolapse is accompanied by reduced efficiency, irritability, a person may be emotionally unstable, he may have disturbed sleep. Can be chest pain. And they are not related to physical activity, and the nitroglycerin has no effect on them.

The most common symptoms

  • Chest pain;
  • Shortness of breath;
  • Shortness of breath;
  • The feeling of the heartbeat or rhythm failure;
  • Fainting;
  • Unstable mood;
  • Fatigue;
  • Headaches in the morning or night.

All these symptoms cannot be called typical only for mitral valve prolapse, they may be due to other problems. However, during the examination of patients with similar complaints (especially at a young age) often reveals mitral valve prolapse 1st degree or even 2nd degree.

How to diagnose pathology

Before you begin treatment, you need an accurate diagnosis. When the need arises in the diagnosis of PMK?

  • First, the diagnosis can be made by accident, during a checkup with performing ultrasound of the heart.
  • Second, any examination of the patient by the therapist can be heard the heart murmur, which will allow for further examination. The characteristic sound, called noise, the deflection of the mitral valve is called regurgitation, that is noisy blood, thrusting back into the atrium.
  • Thirdly, the complaints of the patient can put a physician on suspicion of PMK.

If any such suspicion should be referred to a specialist, a cardiologist. Diagnosis and treatment must pursue it. The main methods of diagnosis - auscultation and heart ultrasound.

Auscultation the doctor may hear a characteristic noise. However, in young patients with a heart murmur is defined quite often. It can occur due to the very fast movement of blood that forms eddies and turbulence.

Such noise is not pathology, it refers to the physiological manifestations anddoes not affect the condition of the person and the work of its bodies. However, if detected noise is to be safe and to conduct additional diagnostic tests.

Accurately identify and confirm the PMK or the lack of it can only the method of echocardiography (ultrasound). The survey results are visualized on the screen and the doctor sees how the valve is working. He sees the movement of his flaps and bending under the blood. Mitral valve prolapse may not always appear alone, so in some cases, the patient is examined again after physical exertion, e.g. after 20 squats.

In response to the load increasing blood pressure, increasing the pressure force on the valve, and prolapse, however small, becomes evident on ultrasonography.

How is the treatment

If PMK is asymptomatic, treatment is not required. When the detected pathology usually the doctor recommends to consult with the cardiologist to do a cardiac ultrasound every year. This will give the opportunity to see the dynamics of the process and to notice the deterioration of the condition and operation of the valve.

In addition, the cardiologist usually recommends to stop Smoking, strong tea and coffee, to minimize the use of alcohol. Useful are therapeutic exercise or any other physical activity except for heavy sports.

Mitral valve prolapse of 2 degrees, and particularly 3 degrees, can cause significant regurgitation, which leads to deterioration of health and the onset of symptoms. In these cases, medical treatment. However, the condition of the valve and the prolapse no medicine can affect. For this reason, the treatment is symptomatic, that is, the primary action is directed to relief from unpleasant symptoms.

Therapy prescribed for PMK

  • Antiarrhythmic;
  • Hypotensive;
  • Stabilizing the nervous system;
  • Toning.

In some cases dominate the symptoms of arrhythmia, then it requires appropriate preparations. Others require sedatives, as the patient is very irritable. Thus, the drugs are appointed in accordance with the complaints and identified problems.

It may be a combination of symptoms, then the treatment should be complex. All patients with mitral valve prolapse is recommended to arrange mode so that the dream was of sufficient duration.

Among the medications prescribed beta-blockers, drugs that feed the heart and improve it's metabolic processes. Of sedatives are often quite effective infusions of Valerian and motherwort.

The influence of drugs may not produce the desired effect, so as not to affect the status of the valve. There may come a slight improvement, but it cannot be considered stable in acute progressive course of the disease.

In addition, the possible complications, which require surgical treatment. The most frequent reason for surgery in PMK - gap cords of the mitral valve.

While heart failure will grow very quickly because the valve can't close.

Surgical treatment is a strengthening ring valve or implantation of the mitral valve. Today, such operations are quite successful and can lead the patient to a significant improvement and well-being.

In General, the prognosis of mitral valve prolapse depends on several factors:

  • the speed of development of the pathological process;
  • the severity of the pathology of the valve itself;
  • the degree of regurgitation.

Of course, a major role in the success of the treatment is played by the timely diagnosis and accurate observance of appointments with a cardiologist. If the patient is attentive to their health, then it is time "sounds the alarm" and will undergo the necessary diagnostic procedures, and will be accepted for treatment.

In the case of the uncontrolled development of the pathology and the lack of necessary treatment, the condition of the heart may gradually deteriorate, leading to unpleasant and possibly irreversible consequences.

What are preventive measures

Mitral valve prolapse is mostly a congenital problem. However, this does not mean that it is impossible to prevent. At least it is possible to reduce the risk of development of 2 and 3 degrees of prolapse.

Prevention can be regular visits to the cardiologist, adherence to diet and rest, regular exercise, prevention and timely treatment of infectious diseases.