Restoration of blood flow in the brain with the help of bypass surgery
A bypass surgery is called the surgery affecting the brain, which is the resumption of normal blood flow through blood vascular by connecting the artery with the vessel in which there is blood flow.
In the brain there are four key arteries, which flow into it of nutrients and oxygen, if at least one of them have any problems with the blood supply, then starts the ischemia. The brain can no longer function, begin neurological disorders, which ultimately can lead to the destruction of neurons or, in other words, the cerebral infarction.
Due to bypass surgery, the blood can take to bypass the blocked arteries and the smooth functioning of the brain, without any problems with the supply of nutrients and blood is restored.
Another application of bypass surgery is a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in hydrocephalus. In hydrocephalus this fluid, called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulates in the cavities of the brain - and, although the bypass surgery does not resolve the problem, it allows her to facilitate removing of the key symptoms.
Following pathology and variations are the reason for operative bypass grafting:
- the artery occlusion/stenosis, confirmed by numerous surveys.
- aneurysms that cannot be eliminated by alternative methods;
- tumor or atheromatous pathology of the carotid artery;
- the inability to promptly prevent the development of transistor ischemic attack/stroke with the more traditional drugs.
Also the operation is performed with hydrocephalus.
Before a similar operation can be carried out, should be trained. First, the patient must give up at least one and a half weeks from all sorts of bad habits that he has, like Smoking and alcohol consumption (after surgery at least two weeks to smoke and drink alcohol too, otherwise increases the risk of bleeding from the operated vascular). Also need a week to eliminate any anti-inflammatory drugs non-steroidal type.
Next is the details of the examination, which includes:
- a blood test
Additionally, at the discretion of the physician:
- Angiography (different types: intra-arterial,computed tomography and magnetic resonance), allowing to identify exactly where the artery stenosis.
- Ultrasonic duplex scanning. It allows you to determine the current state of those vascular that are in immediate risk.
- A study of temporary arterial occlusion with the balloon. Allows you to define how to operate the cerebral blood flow if one artery to remove the blood flow.
There are two main approaches to such patients, depending on what is taken as "donor".
In the first case, you take a piece of an artery (or sometimes of a vein) from any part of the body operated upon. Usually it's some kind of limb. Beyond the shunt, which one end is sewn to the carotid artery and then brought to the temple, under the skin, and then connects through the hole in the skull directly with the right artery of the brain.
This method is suitable for such the arteries that have high blood flow.
If the arteries of different so-called low flow, then applies a slightly different approach. Here the donor is for a vessel that is located directly at the scalp. The free end is fed through holes in the skull to the right artery of the brain, after which the edges of the vascular are sewn together.
Hydrocephalus is applied a third approach, then use a special silicone "hose" that allows you to drain fluid from the ventricles to another place of the patient's body, where it will be better absorbed, for example, in the chest, abdomen or bladder. At the moment there are no methods of treatment of hydrocephalus, the disease remains for life, but through such shunt has the ability to ease the negative effects and to ensure patient a normal life, without any problems if the monitor shunt.
Probable side effects
The likelihood of side effects with this procedure are not as high, but it has, as there is such a possibility in any surgical intervention in the area of vascular and not only. In particular, there is a small risk of epilepsy, blood clots in the shunt or stroke.
During the operation, which should ease the effects of hydrocephalus, it is also possible to apply shunt blockage or malfunction of one of its valves. If this happens, then the whole shunt it is imperative to urgently replace a new one, again pushing fluid from the ventricles of the brain at the selected location on the body.
When the surgery is completed, you needto make an MRI that will reveal whether not formed in the brain hemorrhage (or, alternatively, ischemia). Also performed duplex scanning of blood vascular, which allows blood flow to be assessed. If all goes well and no adverse effects are not formed, then on the eighth or ninth day after the operation will be carried out statement.
After discharge, you must follow certain rules that will allow you to very quickly recover. You must take all medicines exactly as prescribed doctors.
Don't need to take alcohol - it can interfere with medications. The heavy physical load, while there is a rehabilitation period, it is necessary to exclude more than three pounds not to raise, as long as you can spend your time in the fresh air.
Bypass of the brain - undoubtedly a very complex operation, but it gives a tangible effect and allows you to get rid of a number of dangerous problems, either allowing them, or, as in hydrocephalus, minimize their symptoms, diverting fluid from the ventricles.
We also recommend you to read: violation of cerebral circulation.