Hemangioma is the types as well as causes and treatment
One of the varieties of benign tumors - angioma. These tumors develop from blood vascular, blood or lymph. Depending on the size, type and features of angioma they may be small cosmetic defect or a problem.
Angiomas often appear as spots, bumps or knobby education. They are covered with thinned skin or mucosa. Leather is the most common location of the angiomas, although they may be formed also in the internal organs. The color of these formations can be red, blue-purple, dark blue or yellow-brown.
Why there angiomas
The cause of angioma is a violation of of developing vascular in utero development of the child. In fact angioma, represents a dilated or newly formed blood vascular. The increase of the tumor occurs due to overgrowth of tumor vascular. The exact causes of these processes has not yet been identified.
It is known that in some cases, angiomas develop as a result of traumatic injuries, on the background of liver cirrhosis, malignant tumors of internal organs. Sometimes to trigger the development of angiomas may pregnancy or the contraceptive drugs.
Angiomas, are formed from blood vascular called hemangiomas, lymphatic - lymphangiomas. Often the formation of angioma occurs in utero, and they are detected in one third of newborns.
Many of these tumors disappear by themselves, but part of them continues to evolve, increasing in size.
Of the vascular of the lymphatic system develop lymphangioma. They include the formation of several species.
What are lymphangioma
- Simple (capillary),
There is a primary lymphangioma that are defect, and the secondary - a consequence of violations of lymph circulation due to infectious diseases.
Lymphangioma are most often on the neck, in the mouth, on the hands, although it can form almost anywhere on the body. They have a yellowish color, but can be reddish or brownish because of impurities in the blood.
Capillary (simple) lymphangioma is grouped, yellowish fluid filled bubbles. They are soft to the touch and painless.
Cavernous tumors represent a multi-chamber cavity, whichformed from lymphatic vascular with thick walls. They deform the affected areas, germinate in the skin. They look like subcutaneous soft nodules of 3-5 mm. are Formed on the surface of the cheeks, neck, chest, sides of the torso or on the extremities.
The most common cystic lymphangioma. They represent a fairly large formation consisting of cavities, which are filled with serous fluid. Located in the region of the lymph nodes in the groin, neck, retroperitoneal fat, mesentery of the intestines.
This type of neoplasm develops from the blood vascular. Depending on the type of vascular that make up the hemangioma, from the features of its microscopic structure there are several varieties of tumors of this type.
- The cavernous.
This type of hemangioma is 90% of all cases of this disease. It is formed from small blood vascular - capillaries. Localization most of all - the outer skin in the upper body, while capillary hemangioma is found in the internal organs.
Some features of the development
Hemangiomas of the capillary type is a juvenile neoplasms. They are identified in newborns or in the first three months of a child's life.
The growth of the baby grows and hemangioma, active growth occurs in the first six months of life. In some cases, then it stops growing or starts to shrink. Closer to adolescence, the tumor becomes pale or completely eliminated. To 20-23 years capillary hemangioma may eventually degenerate.
The self-destruction of capillary hemangioma occurs in several stages:
- Capillaries that comprise the tumor, collapse and lose their ability to pass red blood cells,
- The tumor loses its color, shrinks,
- Blood vascular of the tumor are destroyed
- Capillary hemangioma becomes completely invisible, though her living cells left in the body.
Growth and reduction of capillary hemangioma is unpredictable. Active may increase and spread to neighboring areas. If the depth of the skin lesions are large, the spreading area is extensive, and the hemangioma is anatomically hazardous areas, there may be serious consequences.
For example, the location of tumors in the field of ear, eye, nose, or mouth can cause tissue damage and disruption of organs. Possible problems with hearing, vision, breathing difficulties. Because of the possibility of sucheffects doctors recommended to keep a capillary hemangioma under constant surveillance.
Venous and arterial
Hemangioma of this type are much less common than capillary. With the sprouting of the venous vascular in the tumor has a bluish color. If the hemangioma is formed of blood vascular, the color will be red. Blood hemangiomas may be large enough in area and often lie deep in the tissues.
This type of vascular tumor is quite rare. It consists of thin-walled vascular with a wide lumen and forming a cavity (cavity), which can be blood clots. Localization of cavernous hemangioma - skin and organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
Outwardly, it looks like a bulge on the skin a reddish-bluish color. The structure is a sponge-like formation having a cavity filled with blood.
The risk of cavernous hemangioma is their high vulnerability to injury, and the probability of spontaneous opening of the bleeding. If the tumor size is large, can be broken normal blood flow in the region of the hemangioma, it is accompanied by malformations of the adjacent tissues.
At the place of formation are the most common hemangiomas are formed in the upper layers of the skin - surface. Typically, these hemangiomas is already with child at birth or appear in first months of life. Little red spots located on the face, neck, back or arms. Parents should watch for these spots and the increase in size or number to show a child specialist.
The deceit of superficial hemangiomas in that they can quickly begin to grow and occupy a large area. There is a danger of tissue necrosis, hemorrhage, ulceration and infection.
The name given to the fiery nerve endings. They are inherent and worrisome parents. These vascular tumors do not protrude above the skin and represent an uneven bluish or reddish spots. Fire nevi can be large in size and localization to the face to disfigure the appearance. The treatment they give.
The tumor is also called spider nevus. It is a bright red spot solid consistency, from which rays of blood vascular. These spider veins tea all are individual and are formed in adults. Multiple spider nevi can be formed in this disease, as cirrhosis of the liver.
This type of vascular tumors are also characteristic of adults. They usually occur in those older than 30 years. Cherry angioma is a round bulging tumors from 1 to 5 millimeters. First, they have a cherry-red coloration, then darken to Burgundy shade. Their number on the body can be up to several hundred.
Character cherry angiomas are benign, but a rapid increase in their number - a reason to visit the oncologist.
Treatment of vascular tumors
Treatment need not all vascular tumors. If the size is small, the tumor does not interfere with the patient does not bring the aesthetic of discomfort and increases in size, then touch it.
Indications for removal of the angioma
- Predisposition to bleeding,
- Rapid growth,
- Deep tissue penetration,
- Loss of functional ability of organs,
- Discomfort when wearing shoes and clothes
- The propensity for trauma,
- Aesthetic discomfort.
Modern methods of treatment
- Laser removal,
- Radiation treatment
- Surgical removal,
- The hormonal treatment.
The main efforts in the treatment of vascular tumors aimed at stopping the development of tumors, restoration of blood flow and, if necessary, the removal of the damaged portion.
The choice of method depends on many features. Techniques such as electrocautery and laser treatment that allow you to remove a damaged angiom layers of the skin. Cryotherapy is successfully applied in the practice of the treatment of children and shows good results.
Radiation treatment is often effective in the treatment of vascular tumors located in remote places, or when deep penetration into the tissue. For removal of deep tumors also applies to surgical treatment. In some cases, angiomas can be removed, especially if they occupy a large area. Then with the help of hormonal drugs stops their growth.
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