Phlebothrombosis of deep veins
Partial or total overlap is called deep vein thrombosis. In the lumen of the vein for various reasons formed a clot, which leads to disruption or complete cessation of blood flow. Most often phlebothrombosis involves the formation of a thrombus in the lumen of the deep veins.
The causes of the disease
There is a view that thrombosis of the lower extremities occurs as the result of medical surgery. However, there are other factors that can serve as an impetus for the development of this pathological process:
- varicose veins or mechanical compression of the vascular, for example, during a long bed rest can cause blood stasis. This is especially true for the lower extremities, where the obstacles to normal blood flow cause phlebothrombosis;
- infection or inflammation that may occur as a result of injury, medical procedures or be autoimmune in nature;
- malfunction of the blood coagulation system. These pathologies can develop as a result of improper functioning of metabolic processes, cancer or liver disease.
The symptoms and signs of thrombosis of the lower extremities
Typically, the first symptoms of illness occurs unexpectedly for the patient. But since these symptoms have weak expression, people for a long time can not pay attention to them, believing that they will soon themselves.
In addition, many diseases have similar clinical picture with phlebothrombosis, so treatment of the disease has its specificity.
Doctors ' recommendations on detection of thrombosis of the lower extremities in the early stages are as follows:
- you need to pay attention to the condition of the feet. In the case of strong swelling, feeling of fullness, pain or temperature rise of an individual section of the lower limbs immediately consult a doctor;
- phlebothrombosis has a special feature: pain is worse when walking. Usually by the evening the patient can hardly feel my legs.
Regarding location of pain most cases of thrombosis are similar: first, the unpleasant sensations appear under the knee, and then they gradually spread on the inner and outer thigh, impeding normal movement.
Varieties of the disease
Like many other pathologies of the venous system, phlebothrombosis can manifest itself in various signs. However distinguish several varieties of this disease, which have fundamental differences from the original disease.
Thus, obstruction of blood flow of the iliac and femoral venous phase is called iliofemoral phlebothrombosis and has a very severe course. A particularly high risk that you will suffer and the pulmonary artery, which may develop thromboembolism.
The symptoms of this kind of pathology of the venous system are more pronounced:
- strong lower extremity swelling visible to the naked eye;
- bluish or purple spots on the legs;
- strong pain in one leg or in both. Often give pain in the groin;
- the increase in temperature.
Treatment for this type of thrombosis is not fundamentally different from other techniques. However, iliofemoral phlebothrombosis requires an more rapid medical intervention. Otherwise the possibility of formation of pulmonary embolism carries a mortal danger for the patient.
And definitive diagnosis of the disease to put not so simple, because its clinical picture is similar to many other pathologies of the venous system. Meanwhile, effective treatment of disease are impossible without a full investigation of the condition of the arteries.
So the doctor, after the usual inspection will prescribe the patient the following procedures:
- duplex ultrasound of vascular of lower extremities. This will allow you to identify all the lesions and begin treatment;
- Ultrasound in the diagnosis of phlebothrombosis may not always give a comprehensive picture of the state of internal organs, but in some cases, the doctor may prescribe it;
- the venography that is diagnostic of the condition of the entire body, can be a great help in identifying problem areas that threaten the emergence of a blood clot;
- General blood work will show the degree of clotting and the levels of leukocytes and erythrocytes;
- such a study, like an MRI, is assigned on an individual basis. It is very informative in determining the location and size of the clot.
Thus, in the diagnosis of the treating doctor assesses the General condition of the venous system of the patient, determines the location of the thrombus and the potential danger emanating from him. After evaluating these parameters is assigned to the appropriate case treatment.
Treatment of phlebothrombosis
Depending on the results of the performed full diagnostic tests the physician may decide on surgical intervention or conservative treatment. In that case, if the disease is at a very early stage of development, it is possible to use methods that dissolve the clot.
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If the reason that causes the phlebothrombosis, when collecting history is obvious, can be assigned to therapy based on the following groups of medicines:
- the anticoagulants, i.e., drugs that promote blood thinners;
- the antiplatelet agents that reduce blood clotting;
- anti-inflammatory drugs.
With the threat of thromboembolism prophylaxis methods are used:
- installing cava filter to catch clots in the arteries;
- tie the femoral vein, to prevent the passage of a blood clot in the pulmonary artery.
If a phlebothrombosis of deep veins threatens the development of thromboembolism of the lung artery, shows surgery. Also, a surgical operation will be conducted with gangrene venous phase, or with the threat of displacement of thrombus into the inferior Vena cava.
In addition, if the diagnosis showed the presence of several blood clots, your doctor will recommend an operation called catheter-directed thrombolysis. In the course of surgical intervention will be ruined by the blood clot preventing normal blood flow.
A wide diversity of approaches and methods allows to choose the most effective therapy for most cases of this disease of the lower extremities.
But at the same time you must be aware that in a short time, clots can occur if not to pay due attention to the conditions and way of life to prevent it. Supportive therapy, focused on continuous medication should be combined with proper diet and recommended by your doctor lifestyle. Only in this case the treatment will successfully and effectively.
Prevention of blood clots
The way of life that moves from the patient phlebothrombosis, is not fundamentally different from what is recommended for many other ailments. Proper diet in small portions and moderate physical activity combined with a waiver of the patient's bad habits will lead to the correct result.
In that case, if the patient can fit into a potential risk group for this pathology, for instance, when he is forced to stay in bed after surgery or injury, after the advice of the attending physician to take medication, reduce the degree of blood clotting.
Also recommended reading material about what is deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities.