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Diastolic blood pressure: elevated and reduced rates


Blood pressure is one of the oldest in medicine biomarkers. Measure learned a long time ago, and for millennia, many of the diagnoses were established on the indicators of systolic and diastolic pressure. And despite the huge number of modern methods of diagnosis, low diastolic pressure, or high and help quickly identify the disease.

Blood pressure: what it is

Under this concept mean arterial pressure, that is, the fact that blood flow exerts on the walls of blood vascular. More specifically, it is the amount of excess fluid pressure in the circulatory system in relation to atmospheric. Measured in the same units - millimeters of mercury, and consists of two numbers - the top and bottom.

Where are the two numbers? The reasons lie in the peculiarities of the work of the heart.

The left ventricle contracts and ejects into the aorta the blood that is placed into it. The amount of pressure in this area is determined by the volume of blood that pumps the heart is not in one batch and per unit time, and the resistance of the vessel walls.

Since the working volume of the large arteries differ little from the aorta and the ventricle, the difference in pressure is very small - 5-10 mm of mercury. This article is due to the lack of hydrodynamic resistance.

шкала давления

But then the major arteries divide into smaller and smaller, the cross-section becomes smaller, the flow resistance and the pressure decreases. In the capillaries the rate will be much lower blood in the veins, especially in remote areas - an ankle, for example, will be minimal.

The lowest is recorded in the right atrium, where blood returns through the veins. In some cases, such pressure also is an important indicator and is measured with special devices.

However, the flow of blood in the aorta is cyclical rather than continuous in nature: because between the contraction and filling of the left ventricle takes some time. Therefore, the blood in the aorta flows portions, and the pressure at the time of receipt and without it is different.

Нормальное давление человека
  • Arterial systolic is the upper figure, the rate at the time of compression of the left ventricle - systole of the heart. Value is determined by the volume of blood received by the aorta, the degree of resistance of the walls and the number of contractions per measured unit of time.
  • The lower figure is the diastolic indicator, that is, the pressure of blood at the momentrelaxation of the heart - diastole. This indicator determines the degree of resistance of small blood vascular. High diastolic pressure, however, as the low points to irregularities in the circulatory system. The reasons are different, but most often are associated with abnormalities in the kidneys..

The largest difference between the figures recorded in the aorta, where the blood while reducing ejected with the power.

As the distance from the heart decreases the amplitude. Capillary and venous, for example, practically do not depend on phase.

Low rates

Low diastolic pressure is an indication of the lack of elasticity of walls of peripheral vascular. The reasons usually lie in the fluctuations in the number of renin.

Last excreted by the kidneys, therefore, too low the lower number in the measurement, first assess the condition of the kidneys.

Index less than 90 mm of mercury. the article meets standards. It is believed that a young healthy person, the lower figure should reach 80 mm of mercury. St, average age 85 and older figure in 90 mm of mercury. article I guess is normal. Fluctuations can be, but in the range of 5-10 units. Age-related changes, fit into this framework are considered to be natural. For children and Teens the norm, by the way, below 60-70 mm Hg. article

Meet often enough, exceptions. For example, in the period of menstruation in many women the level of diastolic blood pressure reduced to 70, and then 60 mm of mercury. article this is Due to the loss of a certain volume of blood to recover which takes time. Therefore, if oscillations are observed only in this period, the excitement is groundless.

Pressure of 60 mm Hg. St, at times, is stable and does not affect the health. If so, then this low figure is considered as the norm and deviations from it - like a disruption.

Low diastolic phenomenon has the following causes:

  • a disorder in which the kidneys and adrenal glands. Reduced production of renin is associated, usually, with the accumulation of toxic substances, and the latter are concentrated in the malfunction of the kidneys;
  • anorexia and commitment to low-calorie diets lead to a sustained drop in the indicator. Systolic pressure is also often underestimated;
  • tuberculosis - blood loss and spasserovannye vascular of the lungs destroys the circulatory system;
  • allergies - depending on its type and localization having a different action, in particular, and on the vascular;
  • stress, anxiety and even the change of climate can cause a low diastolic pressure.

The reasons for violation are very diverse, so the treatment begins with a thorough diagnosis. It's undesirable to use any normalizingdrugs, sedatives, for example, to ascertain the true causes of the disease.

High blood pressure

At first glance, the high pressure should indicate the good tone of the walls in the peripheral vascular. In fact, the mechanism here is somewhat different.

The walls of blood vascular.

High blood pressure indicates hypertonicity of smooth muscles of the blood vascular that manifests as thickening of the walls, reducing the lumen and increased contractility. In turn, these changes require a higher systolic pressure to compensate for a reduction of working section, and cause hypertrophy of the ventricle and disorders of the myocardium.

  • High diastolic pressure is characterized by indicators from 90 to 105 mm. Hg. article If such level is observed in the elderly, it can hardly be considered the norm. But in patients up to 30 years is a clear indication of the development of hypertension.
  • Range from 106 to 115 mm. RT. the article confirms the presence of moderate hypertension.
  • High diastolic pressure - from 115, and the more than 130 mm of mercury. article - a clear sign of severe hypertension.

The most obvious effects of high blood pressure include disorders of the heart, particularly the myocardium. Moreover, the probability of disease increases two-fold when you figure for every 10/20 mm, RT. article

The reasons for violation are:

  • the primary is a hereditary predisposition, as hyperplasia of the muscles of the vascular is associated with impaired intransitive in the cell, namely calcium exchange. Other factors can be considered as the instigators of that violation;
  • Smoking primarily destroys the ion exchange in the cells of tissues, including vascular;
  • obesity - in addition to disorders of calcium metabolism importance here and a purely mechanical factor, as extra weight automatic requires more intensive work of the left ventricle, and, therefore, provokes hypertrophy;
  • diabetes - both types. The disease visibly distort the metabolism, and consequently affects the pressure;
  • diarrhea and taking diuretics vehicles. Violates the exchange of salts, and it causes vasoconstriction. If the cause of the disease is in the use of diuretic medications, such a disease can be cured very quickly;
  • stress - causes both high pressure and low. It depends on the General condition of body and temperament.

Blood pressure is very sensitive to the emotional experiences of any kind. Therefore, in a hospital, never a diagnosis on a single measurement indicator. Monitored at least days. And even a possible changestaff, as sometimes the mere appearance of a white coat, makes the patient nervous.

  • Physical activity - even a simple 20-minute walk at a fast pace will help to handle high diastolic pressure or raise low. Loads, however, should not exceed the critical value. It is known that athletes have often observed a lower level of diastolic pressure, which is associated with excessive, exhausting effort.
  • Massage of any kind: manual, hardware, anti-cellulite - restores normal work of capillaries, which in turn will affect their tone.
  • To reduce the pressure will help the observance of certain rules in the diet. Since the increase provoked by low potassium, you should give preference to vegetables and fruits, which marked the high content of potassium and vitamin C.
  • To improve, avoid too much caffeine: although its stimulating action on the blood vascular, caffeine stimulates the removal of sodium.
  • A contrast shower is a great way to adjust the indicator, since the alternate cooling and heating of the peripheral vascular and normalizes their work.
  • The preservation of peace - the excitement immediately affect the work of the vascular, respectively, and the amount of pressure. Of course, to completely avoid the disturbances is not possible, and there is no need. We are talking about painful strong over-reaction. If such a tendency is, it is recommended to practice meditation, yoga or your favorite hobby.

Deviation from the normal indicator is not accompanied by some characteristic features.

Often patients will learn about this during the examination. If hypertension and hypotension have not reached the advanced stage, treatment is reduced to the above recommendations. Which is much easier and healthier than meds.