What is the cardiac rheumatism: causes, diagnosis, treatment
A disease Sokolsky-Buyo, rheumatism of the heart, rheumatic fever - a disease about which we are going to tell, has many names. What is rheumatic fever and how to get rid of this scourge?
Four decades ago, rheumatic fever was common among young children, whose age was 6-15 years. Patients had a genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and low immunity.
The disease is considered very serious. In the case of rapid diagnosis of rheumatism of the heart requires immediate treatment. Before this you need to understand what causes disease and to forecast for the future. Some patients prefer traditional medicine - we will devote a separate section of the article.
Where to look for the causes of rheumatism of the heart
The main culprit inflammation of the cardiac tissue - β-hemolytic Streptococcus. This organism enters our body through the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, the basis of rheumatic heart disease are acute respiratory disease. Remember - the symptoms of angina may develop into something more threatening.
Poor living conditions can cause low immunity and provide a favorable environment for the development of rheumatism. The connective tissue of the heart muscle affected by microorganisms and under the influence of unfavorable climatic factors. Heart shell come in immune response, immunoglobulins are formed. The result - a heart attack.
Sometimes parents genetically passed leukocyte alloantigen. Immunoglobulins are synthesized, to dealing with strep. These substances are capable of reacting with tissue antigens. Scientists have dubbed the phenomenon of molecular mimicry. Rheumatic diseases of the human heart are directly connected with this phenomenon.
The clinical picture and symptoms of the disease
Inflammatory processes affect not only the cardiovascular system but also other organs. The symptoms of the pathology occur on the background of a variety of immune disorders. The clinical picture will vary depending on the form of rheumatic heart disease. As parameters for the classification of selected options flow pathology.
Forms of rheumatism are as follows:
- acute (sudden onset, symptoms bright, intense current);
- subacute (attack lasts within six months);
- monotonous prolonged (symptoms are associated with a certain syndrome);
- recurrent wave-like (partial remission, bright exacerbations, progression of disease, multiple symptoms);
- latent (brightsymptoms, instrumental and laboratory diagnosis yields no results).
Variability of the course of disease requires a comprehensive study and individual approach to each patient. Symptoms are quite varied and point to the many underlying diseases.
Fortunately, in children three years of age (and younger) pathology is not found.
Let us list the most characteristic symptoms of rheumatism:
- weakness and fatigue;
- headache and joint pain;
- signs of a fever (observed after pharyngitis and tonsillitis);
- acute pain syndrome in medium and large joints;
- high temperatures, reaching 40°C;
- migratory arthritis;
- shortness of breath;
- heart palpitations;
- heart pains;
- asthenic manifestations (malaise, lethargy, fatigue).
There are more rare symptoms such as rheumatoid nodules and anularea rash. The latter is a ring-shaped rims are formed on the skin of the patient. Rash is observed in 7-10% of people affected by disease. Subcutaneous nodules appear in the tendons, vertebrae, medium and large joints.
Diagnosis of rheumatic diseases
To begin proper treatment is required to recognize the disease. Folk remedies to cure illness will not work - it is a means of prevention, one should not pin their hopes on him. The main methods of diagnosis are considered instrumental study - ultrasound of the heart and ECG.
The first diagnostic steps - history taking, auscultation and examination of the patient.
Treatment will not start until you have made the appropriate blood tests:
- C-reactive protein was negative in normal conditions);
- the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (implies a detailed study);
- for rheumatoid factor;
- the titer of antibodies.
The main goal of physicians is the identification of β-hemolytic Streptococcus. The presence of this infection speaks volumes. To do this, from the pharynx is the material with the subsequent sowing. To diagnose rheumatism of the heart can not be without the three basic instrumental procedures:
- Ultrasound (States the absence or the presence of congenital malformation);
- x-ray methods (information give a little, but allow you to monitor pathological changes).
Modern methods of treatment of cardiac rheumatism
A full treatment of rheumatism provides a comprehensive therapy developed at an early stage of the pathology.Various drugs the doctors are trying to suppress the streptococcal infection and also slow down the inflammatory process. Pathology may lead to the progression of cardiovascular defects, and that can't happen.
There are three therapeutic stages:
- Inpatient treatment.
- Follow-up care (the patient goes to the sanatorium of the corresponding profile).
- Clinical supervision.
The first stage involves physiotherapy, correction of diet and medication. All points programs are developed individually.
Some children are genetically predisposed to infectious diseases. If a family documented cases of rheumatism, it's worth a comprehensive study.
Pay attention to chronic tonsillitis and nasopharyngeal infection. Child developing rheumatic fever should always be under medical supervision.
What are the predictions?
The key to successful treatment is early diagnosis. At the early stage of therapy involves the healing of primary cardiac lesions. With the progression of mitral insufficiency, the formation of valvular defects. After the first attack the disease is detected in 15-18% of cases.
The prognosis is favorable, if the parents timely raised the alarm. Pathology can develop without symptoms and, therefore it is necessary to periodically subject a little complex diagnosis. Deciding to connect a people's medicine, please consult with your doctor. Proceed carefully, without panic, and you will certainly cope with the problem.