Manifestations and treatment of post-infarction cardiosclerosis
In 100% of cases after myocardial infarction postinfarction cardiosclerosis develops. If the literal to explain the concept of a heart attack, it is a tissue necrosis in any part of the heart. Over time, heart tissue is vulnerable to necrosis is replaced by connective substance.
Usually this diagnosis is exposed after 2 months after suffering a heart attack. Diagnosis of the disease usually does not cause difficulties, with the help of ultrasound examination of the heart muscle simply determined portion of akinesia (complete cessation of cuts) of a certain portion of the heart muscle.
It is the disease is regarded as a cause of the following diseases:
- Congestive heart failure;
- Different conduction disorders of the heart muscle, called arrhythmias.
Symptoms of the disease will be determined by one of these types of disorders of the heart.
Stage of heart failure
Chronic heart failure is a condition in which the attenuated contractile activity of the heart muscle and the heart is unable to provide the body with sufficient amount of blood. On the background of postinfarction cardiosclerosis and chronic cardiac failure develops slowly, over the years, gradually reducing the patient's quality of life.
According to the classification of Strazhesko-Vasilenko release:
- Chronic heart failure (CHF) N stage 1 - signs of which are manifested only during exercise. Dyspnea, palpitations, pathological disorders occur only in a small circle of blood circulation. Resting hemodynamics are not compromised.
- CHF N 2 A stage in the process involved and the systemic circulation. The patient is concerned about shortness of breath, palpitations. By evening, appear swelling in the legs, which disappear spontaneously in the morning after rest.
- CHF N 2 B stage - observed deep disturbances of hemodynamics, pronounced signs of stagnation in small and big circles of blood circulation. Swelling in the lower extremities are present constantly, gradually begin to swell hands, face, chest, etc. Shortness of breath, palpitations are present at rest.
- CHF N 3 stages - revealed signs of irreversible pathological disorders in the internal organs.
There is still the new York CHF classification, which identified 4 functional class, respectively, from mild to the most severethe course of the disease.
Forecast CHF adverse in the latter stages. CHF N 3 stages are often defined as cause of death in the elderly population. According to statistics it is believed that the patient with post-infarction cardiosclerosis and developing on the background of insufficiency, life expectancy is reduced by 5 - 7 years.
Consider the typical signs of heart failure arising from postinfarction cardiosclerosis.
Dyspnea - rapid shallow breathing, feeling of shortage of air. This condition occurs due to increased pressure on a small circle of blood circulation (pulmonary parenchyma) and leads to impairment of gas exchange. Shortness of breath may be associated with other pathological conditions - anemia, obesity, pulmonary pathologies, therefore, treat it as the main symptom of CHF is only after their exclusion.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea occurs after 3 to 5 hours from the start of the night. This increases vnutrigrudne pressure as in a horizontal position increases the intrathoracic blood volume. Reduced lung capacity. The patient wakes up, sitting up in bed, begins to cough. Attack docked half an hour later from the beginning. Gradually, people is forced to sleep position - sleeping half-sitting.
- Recurring dry cough. Is caused by edema of the bronchial mucosa due to congestive bronchitis.
- Reduced endurance during exercise, fatigue. Due to the reduction of blood flow at the periphery of skeletal muscles undergo changes.
- Cyanosis (skin bluish tint) lips, mucous membranes and nasolabial triangle. Occurs because the velocity of blood flow in this region the lowest. With the development insufficiency develops acrocyanosis - blue patches of skin (nose, ears). Skin feels cold and clammy.
- Symmetric peripheral edema. First appear on the feet, thighs. In severe stages joins anasarca (generalized edema of the extremities, chest and abdomen). Internal swelling may indicate an increase in body mass.
- Flatulence, abdominal enlargement.
- Congestion in the liver and kidneys.
It is clear that the intensity of the symptoms of heart failure increases depending on the stage of the disease. If myocardial infarction develops on a large plot of cardiac tissue for example after a transmural or large-focal myocardial infarction, the prognosis cannot be called prosperous. In such cases, a high probability of sudden death of the patient.
Depending on the size and number ofconnective tissue scarring can lead to various heart rhythm disturbances. Varieties of rhythm disorders quite a lot, most of them presented symptoms increase or severe decrease in heart rate.
Important post-infarction cardiosclerosis you follow a special diet. The amount of fluid reduce to half liter a day limit requires salt.
Salt intake should be no more than 3 grams per day. Take place periodically weighing the patient. The weight gain is a Testament to the delay of excess fluid in the body. In this case you should increase the dose diuretics.
To limit in the diet have foods that contain animal fats, cholesterol, salt. In addition, you should increase the intake of fiber contained in the peas, beans, beans, beets, cabbage. Foods rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids to consume it is necessary. This saltwater fish, seafood, seaweed, vegetable oil (better olive, and mustard), berries, vegetables, fruits.
Patients with post-infarction cardiosclerosis is necessary in many respects to change their habits, but this affects the life expectancy.
I advise you to read a separate article about what a dangerous infarction.