The little stroke in men and women: signs, symptoms, and consequences
Under the heart attack to understand the necrosis of tissue in any organ, not only in heart due to insufficient blood supply. The reasons may be different: thrombosis, spasm of blood vascular, strain on with a total lack of oxygen, and so on.
A mild heart attack affects small areas and is one of the most common ailments.
Onset of the disease
Microinfarct not a disease that can appear in the background of a healthy heart or kidneys. It begins with ischemia, and long, caused by narrowing of the blood vascular. The reason for the narrowing is secondary - it could be diabetes, but can be atherosclerotic plaque.
In any case, the area where the compression begins necrobiosis - irreversible changes in cells that leads to their death. Plot disappear, and in its place formed a scar later.
The disease can heal themselves. However, its effects will be felt for the rest of my life.
Signs of the disease
For a long time it was believed that women are much less prone to microinfarcts, as produced by the female body hormone estrogen protects the cardiovascular system.
However, today's reality is that the protective properties of hormones is not enough: according to statistics, about 300 deaths per year among women "the conscience" microfocal myocardial infarction.
The signs of heart attack in women are the same as in men. But, unfortunately, they are characterized by low specificity. Symptoms of mild heart attack are hard to distinguish from the common cold. The attack lasts 40-60 minutes and during this time to help the patient quite difficult.
- Weakness, dizziness, sometimes fainting, shortness of breath, characteristic of a large number of different ailments.
- Chest pain is also not so specific to serve as a strong indicator for men and women. It can be sharp in nature, can be oppressive and distributed between the shoulder blades and to the stomach. But it may be missing altogether.
- Tablet of nitroglycerin is a common drug with the appearance of heart pain, is not valid.
- Fear for your life, anxiety is a symptom in women and men. In this case it is not a panic attack, and fear, due to objective reasons. Despite this, this symptom is quite often ignored by others.
- The increase in temperature is in the range of 38 C, but abundant cold perspiration - more specific signs of a mild heart attack. This combination indicates a serious disorder in the body.
- The first obvious symptom in women andmen acts as a short-term bruising nasolabial triangle and respiratory failure. This symptom indicates that the microinfarct is happening at this moment.
Often the disease is asymptomatic, and moved the little stroke a person learns only during the annual review. That is no reason to believe that the body will continue to cope with the defeat is a signal that the cardiovascular system is in a serious condition.
The symptoms accompanying
Despite the "rejuvenation" of the disease microinfarct most often occurs in the elderly. In this case, diagnosis is complicated by the fact that, as a rule, the patient already has a serious illness, for which a mild heart attack may be undetected.
- The first sign of a mild heart attack in men and women suffering from cardiac asthma is choking. As a rule, pain is absent, and shortness of breath and weakness are no different from the usual attack of cardiac asthma.
- Gastralgia form inherent in the microinfarct phrenic indistinguishable from gastritis: nausea, severe vomiting, pain in the stomach. The symptoms are so similar that the patients are sent to the gastroenterology Department, and only an ECG can establish the true cause.
- The little stroke at the background of arrhythmia is exactly the same with her symptoms. Pain syndrome, usually occurs.
- Signs of microinfarcts in cerebral form is no different from disorders of blood circulation in the brain: dizziness, headache, short term memory loss and so on.
In addition, pain can be completely unrelated, unexpected localization of the back, arm, right side of the body.
The consequences of small focal myocardial infarction
The scarring on heart muscle - the signs of the most favorable course of the disease. The effects of microinfarct, however, much more diverse and heavy:
- the development of cardiac asthma;
- a broken heart;
- pericarditis - inflammation of the serous membrane of the heart;
- the occurrence of different arrhythmias;
The main "culprit", but purely mechanical, to get out atherosclerosis of the arterial vascular and subsequent thrombosis of coronary arteries.
The clot is usually due to hemorrhage into atherosclerotic plaque. It partially covers the vessel, and provokes the beginning of necrobiosis.
There is a situation against a variety of diseases:
- In fact, the atherosclerosis -chronic disease caused by disorders in lipid and protein metabolism. Accompanied by deposits of cholesterol on walls of vascular and, in the end, provokes the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
- Hypercholesterolemia - elevated cholesterol for a variety of reasons. It is rather, a state, and not the disease itself.
- Hypertension is the constant high pressure destroys blood vascular, including coronary arteries.
- Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease provoking violation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
- Smoking is a serious danger to vascular, since, among other things, causes a persistent vasoconstriction, and, consequently, prolonged ischemia of the heart.
- Spasm quite healthy sauces may occur on the backdrop of a strong fright or excessive physical and nervous stress. They increase the need of cardiac muscle in oxygen, and to satisfy her body fails.
Looking at the main reasons for the formation of the disease, it is easy to determine who is at risk. Of course, fans of the greasy heavy meals and smokers are the "first" patients. The second phase was composed of employees in positions associated with great responsibility, and people exposed to excessive nerve tests.
Diagnosis of the disease
Because of asimptomaticescoe of the disease to diagnose it is extremely difficult, and without hardware acceleration is impossible. Develops a mild heart attack in the next hour, and at this time, the diagnosis cannot be established with the help of instruments. As a rule, determine the disease after its development.
- ECG analysis reveals pathological changes associated with ischemia, but does not record the increase of the q wave. the Latter is typical for large-focal myocardial infarction.
- A blood test detect so-called markers of a heart attack, but in small quantities.
- Ultrasound of the heart - allows you to set the size of the lesion and to clarify localization.
The treatment of the disease
A great help in the further treatment is the provision of competent first aid. The techniques are the same for all damage to the cardiovascular system and is aimed at facilitating the work of the heart:
- the patient is placed or seated so that the body will have a reliable footing;
- ensure complete immobility and emotional peace;
- provide fresh air and free breathing: open the window, unbuttoning the collar of the shirt;
- the patient is allowed to swallow an aspirin, and every 15-20 minutes until the ambulance arrives give dissolve tablets of nitroglycerin. The latter technique is not suitable for hypotensive, therefore, preferably before taking nitroglycerin blood pressure.
In any case, required hospitalization, and conducting all necessary activities.
- Bed rest - to a great extent facilitates the work of the heart at rest, both physical and emotional. In some cases, prohibit or restrict the duration of visits to the patient.
- First entered pain medications, especially if the little stroke is accompanied by severe pain. Then steps are taken to normalize blood pressure.
- Treatment of microinfarct necessarily includes the introduction of tools that expand blood vascular - koronarolitikov, and substances ulucami blood flow. Thus, prevent the danger of thrombosis.
- As a rule, elderly patients treated with medication. Treatment is long and complex due to concomitant diseases. There is a danger of relapse.
At a younger age for surgical intervention is resorted to more often, fixing walls, preventing the narrowing injected inside the blood vascular drugs that dissolve blood clots, and so on.
Surgical intervention allows to reduce the acute period. Scars in this case are formed on 35 the day after a mild heart attack. The forecasts are very favorable.
The recovery period
After large-focal myocardial recovery requires a considerable period of time. Recommendations are very simple and relate more to the proper organization of the regime than any special measures.
Rehabilitation physician, based on the status of each patient, prescribes medications, ulucami blood flow and transfer of oxygen the heart muscle.
In this period the nutrition and oxygenation of her - the most important factors of recovery.
- Mandatory exercise, otherwise the heart will not be able to recover. Start with a leisurely Hiking. This is a very convenient that allows you to easily adjust the pace depending on the state. You shouldn't rush, but also to limit the mobility of the impossible. May increase heart rate up to 120 min after 2 hours of walking. A clear indicator of recovery is the reduction of the heart rate of 90-100 beats.
- Definitely pressure monitoring. The patient has to undergo periodic ECG and see your doctor.
Should eliminate bad habits - Smoking and alcohol.
If the cause of the little stroke was stress or strong emotion, the necessary consultations with the therapist. A relaxed emotional state - the same "cure" as medications. In an unstable emotional state are appointed by the soothing herbs.
Prevention of disease
Exercise the heart muscle and the absence of harmful habitsif not a guarantee of the absence of disease, it is a solid resource for recovering from any adversity. A little stroke is the result of vasoconstriction, and to avoid such diseases, it is necessary to exclude risk factors.
They are pretty standard:
- Smoking triggers persistent vasoconstriction and hence ischemia;
- lack of exercise weakens the heart. After all, like any other muscle in the human body, it needs exercise;
- emotional stress, the heart responds to them instantly, but unlike physical activity it is not able to adapt;
- cholesterol is an important factor in the development of atherosclerotic plaques. A direct consequence of an unbalanced menu with an abundance of fatty animal food. It should be limited.
Microinfarct - not such a simple disease as it seems. In most cases it is the alarm, which sends a worn out cardiovascular system.
It is more than good reason to revise your lifestyle.