How is the Doppler and it shows
Times of diagnoses "touch" are long gone: with the help of modern equipment for a few minutes to find out exactly what is happening with the patient. Among the most effective methods of hardware diagnostics include a Doppler ultrasound - a kind of research, whose effect is based on the frequency of the ultrasonic waves in the movement of blood through the vascular.
Doppler ultrasound can be used in almost any field of medicine, obstetrics is widely used Doppler fetus - a method of examination of vascular in the child, allowing to establish, if he does not suffer from hypoxia due to circulatory disturbances in the placenta; use this diagnosis and for determining the vascular pathology in surgery, neurology, urology, cardiology, endocrinology.
Doppler-ultrasound in neurology
When and to whom shown research
Noise in the ears, dizziness, headaches, pressure surges - this is not a complete list of complaints the handling of which the neurologist you will be recommended to Doppler blood vascular of the brain.
Vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the brain can be squeezed by the vertebrae in the neck or clogged by atherosclerotic plaque, thrombi. Everything that hinders the blood to move freely through the vascular, causes these symptoms.
Before prescribe treatment, the specialist should find out what creates obstacles to blood flow and slows it down.
The state of the internal vascular of the brain was designed to measure transcranial Doppler - absolutely painless method of diagnosis that is used when you suspect the following diseases:
- Cervical-thoracic osteochondrosis;
- Acute violation of cerebral circulation;
- A transient ischemic attack (minor stroke);
- Coronary heart disease;
- Heart attack;
- Vegetovascular dystonia;
- Vertebral-basilar circulatory insufficiency.
Transcranial Doppler is invaluable in cases when you want to predict the probability of possible deterioration (relapses) or the degree of recovery of lost functions after a stroke or heart attack.
Prophylactically, such a study is recommended for everyone over the age of 55 years - and especially those whose parents at the time were ill with arterial hypertension suffered a heart attack or stroke.
The study was conducted by attaching the sensors of the machine in several places: to the temporal and occipital bones, great neck opening, closed upper eyelid.
The purpose of the procedure is to assess the speed of blood flow in the arteries - the posterior, middle and anterior cerebral and in the posterior communicating artery and the main. The survey exposed the veins of Rosenthal and Galen, straight sinus, ophthalmic artery and siphon of the internal carotid artery, parapatellar and paravertebral plexus of veins.
Dopplerography of brain vascular allows to detect organic disorders - constrictive atherosclerosis, aneurysms, thrombosis, and pathology that cannot be seen on conventional sonography due to the lack of specific ultrasonic patterns: these include destinatarului atherosclerosis, angiopathy, lesions of small vascular - vasculitis.
Dopplerography of brain vascular may be undertaken in patients of any age because of its complete safety: it is prescribed even to children. It is very informative with delayed speech and mental development, the complaints of headaches, fatigue, poor memorization of educational material, fainting, blurred vision.
The study evaluated the diameter and thickness of vessel walls, are rendered existing formations inside them - a plaques, blood clots. Great diagnostic value has this parameter as a color cartogram: it shows how uniformly and evenly filled vascular at the zone of turbulence.
Doppler-ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology
The fetus receives oxygen and nutrition through the umbilical cord and placenta attached to the uterine wall. In a number of diseases, the mother, this process can be disrupted, which could lead to development of threatening complications - hypoxia. Oxygen starvation of the fetus is the main cause of serious neurological problems which can make a child permanently disabled: it is cerebral palsy, encephalopathy, birth injury.
In time to see the signs of incipient hypoxia and other vascular abnormalities in the fetus, all women are ultrasound examination, which includes diagnostic Doppler method.
Absolutely necessary is this procedure in RH conflict: with its help the experts assess the General condition of the child, severity of hemolytic disease and all the risks associated with it.
When the investigation
Doppler ultrasound in pregnancy is mandatory and is performed once - at 20-24 weeks: by this time have time to fully form the so-called pool of utero-placental system. Vessels adapt to increased pressure in them losing sensitivity.
This is standard procedure for a normal pregnancy, which is usually combined with routine ultrasound.
Doppler woman may prescribe a few times if she:
- Older than 35 or younger than 20;
- A diabetes or one of the systemic diseases;
- Had previously had a pregnancy that ended with miscarriage or stillbirth;
- Has a negative RH antibodies to the fetus.
Absolute indications for Doppler ultrasound are also neck entanglement of the umbilical cord, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, multiple pregnancy, in which the size of the fruit differ significantly from each other.
Attention: urgent indication for extraordinary Doppler ultrasound is abdominal trauma (fall, strong impact, long compression)!
During the procedure, the research exposed the arteries of the uterus, and the vascular of the umbilical cord and the fetus. Define three indices on which to assess the degree of circulatory disorders in the mother, the placenta and the fetus, which calculated indices of systolic and diastolic blood flow velocity.
Specialist calculates the following indexes:
- The resistance index (IR);
- Index systolicdiastolic ratio;
- The pulsatility index.
Identified by Doppler ultrasound of the blood in the uterus, the placenta and the fetus are of three degrees of severity.
Subspecies A: impaired blood flow between the uterus and placenta, the blood flow between the placenta and the fetus saved
Subspecies B: impaired blood flow between the placenta and the fetus, the blood flow between the uterus and the placenta retained
Simultaneously violated both blood flow (utero-placental and fetal-placental), but no critical violations
Fetal-placental circulation is broken it is hard, however, utero-placental blood flow saved
The further tactics of management of pregnant women depends on the severity of violations: the lighter the pathology, the more likely the women to carry the pregnancy to end, without resorting to premature delivery.
Doppler-ultrasound in urology and surgery
Doppler ultrasound is one of the most informative methods of diagnostics in urological and surgical practice: it can help experts determine the condition of the blood vascular of the kidneys and urinary tract when the nephritis, kidney stones, urinary bladder diseases. Its results are also needed in preparation for various operations to remove a varicocele, stones, tumors.
Another area which is successfully used Doppler ultrasound, diagnostics and Troubleshootingproblems with erection and rapid ejaculation, often appearing even in very young men.
The reasons for sexual weakness experts will include not only chronic sexual infections, endocrine disorders, and common diseases. Very often the perpetrators of violations are erectile vascular of the penis and testicles - trombirovania clogged by fibrous plaques or pathologically convoluted.
Doppler blood vascular of the penis is assigned when:
- Erectile dysfunction;
- Of Peyronie's Disease;
- Injuries of the genital organs;
- Suspected foreign body in the urethra.
This method of investigation is appointed in addition to the normal procedure, ultrasound is cleared.
The procedure is performed, after the injection into the body of the penis introduced a special drug that causes filling of the corpora cavernosa with blood and stable erection that can persist for several hours after completion of the survey.
A study is forbidden in inflammatory diseases of the genital organs.
This is the only contraindication to the use of Doppler ultrasound on the penis.
Vessels are considered healthy, if the survey obtained the following data:
- Systolic velocity of blood through the vascular - at least 0.3 m/sec;
- End-diastolic velocity in the cavernous bodies of not more than 0.05 m/sec, the absolute norm of it is equal to zero;
- The resistance index is above 0,85;
- Index pulsaciones - 4 above.
In addition to the high information content and reliability of the results, diagnosis Doppler method remains one of the most affordable procedures: the equipment for it is available in all diagnostic centers and cost of such studies is acceptable for every working person.