Residual encephalopathy: treatment, causes, diagnosis
Residual encephalopathy called pathological changes in the brain caused by cell death of the Central nervous system. In neurology, this condition is often referred to as encephalomyelopathy, although the list of ICD-10 the term is not included.
A synonym of the word "residual" is "residual", which suggests that the disease was not fully cured.
The diagnosis of "residual encephalopathy" put in the case when the patient had brain damage, and doctors could not fully restore its performance.
The causes of the disease
To cause the death of brain cells in condition a variety of factors:
- traumatic brain injury;
- exposure to ionizing radiation;
- intoxication (alcohol, some drugs, salts of heavy metals, chemicals);
- the influence of psychotropic drugs or narcotics;
- atherosclerosis of cerebral vascular;
- diseases of the kidneys and liver, increase the concentration of urea and bilirubin in the blood;
- diabetes mellitus;
- pregnancy with abnormalities;
- complicated deliveries;
- swelling of the brain.
Classification of the disease
Residual encephalopathy occurs in two forms. It can be perinatal, and acquired.
Cause of congenital encephalopathy are disturbances in pregnancy or labor.
If the cause of the pathology was organic brain damage and its symptoms are manifested only after several years, the disease is called the residual organic encephalopathy.
Depending on the causes of acquired disease are divided into:
- metabolic - caused by metabolic disorders;
- radiation to the development of the disease results in exposure to radiation;
- dyscirculatory - the cause is a chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency;
- anoxic - develops under the influence of prolonged oxygen starvation that occurs most often due to elevated pressure;
- atherosclerosis is a consequence of atherosclerosis;
- bilirubin - called toxic effect of bilirubin;
- diabetic - reason of the disease is diabetes mellitus;
- hypoglycemic - arises due to the lowered concentration of sugar in the blood;
- toxic, oralcohol - brain under the influence of the toxins;
- PTSD is a consequence of contusions and concussions.
Signs of disease
Residual encephalopathy accompany the following symptoms:
- the headache and dizziness that does not go away after taking medicines;
- nausea and vomiting;
- night insomnia and daytime sleepiness;
- memory disorder (short-term or long-term);
- slurred speech;
- weakening of intellectual abilities;
- blurred vision and hearing;
- convulsions, paresis and paralysis;
- numbness of the tongue, lips, hands and feet;
- reflex-pyramids scarcity;
- irritability and nervousness;
- lethargy, depression and apathy;
- sudden mood changes;
- weakness and lethargy;
- frequent fainting;
- mental disorders;
- impaired coordination and motor function.
In severe conditions the patient may fall into a coma.
Depending on the age of the patient and his individual characteristics symptoms of the disease can vary considerably.
Typically, patients symptoms increase gradually, but in some cases there may be rapid progression of the disease.
The residual symptoms of encephalopathy are similar to symptoms of other diseases of the nervous system. In addition, they can be detected through a long period of time (a few months or even years) after the injury that much more difficult to diagnose. Especially hard to diagnose the disease in children.
The diagnosis of "residual encephalopathy" is set by the neurologist after inspection and surveys:
- electroencephalography - allows you to get a full analysis of the activities of the brain and individual cells, detects abnormal changes;
- computed tomography - examines internal organs of the patient;
- magnetic resonance imaging - studying processes at the cellular level;
- nuclear magnetic resonance - explores the biochemical processes in cells.
- rheovasography - explores the condition of blood vascular and blood circulation;
- Doppler ultrasound enables the detection of circulatory disorders;
- puncture spinal fluid (prescribed in severe cases);
- blood tests (General and biochemical) and urine.
How to treat residual encephalopathy?
To treat the disease successful, it must be comprehensive.
The choice of method of treatment depends on the cause and severitydisease.
Begin to treat residual encephalopathy with conservative methods. If they do not give results, then resort to surgical intervention.
Medication includes the use of:
- hormonal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- drugs improving brain blood circulation;
- anticonvulsants and diuretics;
- hypotensive and nootropic drugs;
- lipotropic compounds;
- sedative drugs, antidepressants and tranquilizers;
- amino acids;
- vitamin and mineral complex -strengthens the body.
For recovery of motor disorders and eliminate excessive anxiety is prescribed:
- therapeutic exercise - improves muscle tone, improves blood circulation, restores motor function and coordination;
- massage - provides a rush of blood to the head brain than improves the admission to it of nutrients and oxygen and also stimulates its activity;
- consultation with a therapist;
- contrast shower;
- herbal medicine;
- physiotherapy (reflexology) - activate the protective functions of the organism and send them to fight the disease.
Significant progress is able to give a Spa treatment.
In severe cases, your doctor may recommend hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, and mechanical ventilation.
Supplement medication can folk remedies. They will help to improve the General condition of the patient, relieve dizziness, normalize blood circulation, purify the blood vascular of the brain, soothe the nerves.
The results will be more noticeable, is to take a daily walk, to sleep, rest and completely abandon bad habits.
Surgical treatment is indicated only when the risk is less than inaction. Usually it is necessary when traumatic brain injuries to restore blood flow to the brain, and the formation of tumors.
Features of course of illness and treatment in children
Residual encephalopathy in children can result from:
- genetic mutations;
- birth injury;
- too early or late pregnancy;
- too big or small weight of the newborn;
- for the treatment of mother's fertility;
- moved woman miscarriages and abortions;
- various diseases during pregnancy;
- bad habits of a pregnant woman;
- the effects of radiation;
- work in hazardous industries;
- ischemic lesions of the brain;
- hypoxia of the fetus;
The symptoms in children are similar to symptoms manifested in the adult.
In the development of congenital encephalopathy in children distinguish 4 periods:
- acute - lasts for the first month of life;
- restoration lasts about four months;
- late recovery - delayed for 1-2 years;
With perinatal encephalopathy significant benefits of herbal medicine. It will help to avoid the unpleasant consequences of the disease. Child brewed teas with lemon balm, mint, oregano, St. John's wort, cranberries, knotweed. It is recommended to use essential oils of lavender, geranium, ginger, rosemary. Especially effective herbal balm prepared on the basis of three infusions: red clover, Caucasian Dioscorea and propolis.
Important in the treatment of children is working with a speech therapist and psychologist.
In most cases, the children have a full recovery. But sometimes, you may experience delay in physical, mental, motor and speech development.
The consequences of the disease
Incorrect diagnosis and inadequate treatment can cause serious consequences:
- vegetovascular dystonia;
- hydrocephalic syndrome;
- residual brain dysfunction;
- cerebral palsy;
- of mental retardation;
- Parkinson's disease;
In severe cases, the brain is able to lose about 90% of its functions.
In case of partial or total disability, the patient is assigned a degree of disability.
With timely and proper diagnosis, after being assigned appropriate treatment, it is possible to eliminate all symptoms of the disease. Full recovery occurs in 20-30% of cases.
If the disease started, it is only possible to slow down pathological processes and to improve the condition of the patient, but to cure it and restore the brain will fail.
To prevent the development of pathological disorders should:
- timely treat diseases, is able to have an adverse effect on the brain;
- to avoid injury;
- lead an active lifestyle;
- to abandon bad habits.