The treatment of vascular encephalopathy of the brain
Encephalopathy of the brain is not a single disease, but a whole set of types of organic non-inflammatory lesions of the brain. The most common encephalopathy is a vascular, it is also vascular.
It occurs when the manifest insufficiency of cerebral circulation, which leads to a significant damage. This discirculatory form will be considered further as the core, but others will also be affected.
The disease is available from a number of varieties.
- Toxic. Is called this form of disease, long and complex neuropsychiatric disorders, which arise when a person is poisoned by neurotoxic poisons, like manganese, lead or mercury. When they enter the body, increasing the ventricles, creating swelling and plethora - and that leads to numerous consequences solely of a negative character.
- Radiation. Occurs when the body effect ionizing radiation. You can detect this problem at the psychological and asthenic disorders.
- Hypoxic. This is a common term that unites a variety of diseases that are associated with anoxia. The cause of the problem can be not only a pathology, but a lack of oxygen in the environment. This subtype is associated with sleep disorders and memory, irritability and so on.
- Discirculatory. Arises due to failure in the functioning of the cerebral circulation. Discirculatory form is triggered by injuries, infections, tumors and vascular pathology.
- Wernicke/alcoholic. Occurs while alcoholic defeat, another defeat from a lack of vitamin B1. Is a severe form of alcoholic psychosis, which usually develops in the third stage of alcoholism.
- Residual. It's not very progressive neurologic deficit the type that appears under the influence of various diseases and pathological factors. It is characterized, in particular, dystonia, oborotnei, reduced cognitive function and so on. Due to the presence during of the problem mental disorders are sometimes mistakenly diagnosed as a mental disease. It is especially difficult to diagnosethis pathology in children. The problem is in the fact that the first signs can appear at a young age, and the disease will be felt only years later.
- Post-traumatic. Occurs when the head is injured or hurt. Usually these are combined behavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The difficulty lies in the fact that a number of symptoms, including thought disorder and attention, problems with memory and control of behavior arises only some time after the traumatic impact.
- Hypertensive. There is an encephalopathy in chronic circulation disorders of the brain, which coexists with uncontrolled hypertension blood type. Still more exacerbated when additionally manifested atherosclerosis of cerebral vascular, but worst of all, when you have diabetes, the patient has abnormal lipid metabolism or is an avid smoker.
- Hypoxic ischemic. Occurs when oxygen ceases to flow dramatically in the brain area. An example of a situation that can cause this problem is myocardial infarction, or cardiac arrest for any reason. Also, the reason may be asphyxia, for example, when suffocation, drowning and the number of similar reasons. The result is often extremely negative and very destructive.
Encephalopathy of the brain may have different symptoms depending on what stage of the disease develops at the moment.
The first stage is compensated. During its course the body is still able to cope with the challenges of cerebral blood flow is maintained at a sufficient level, but the first effects are already evident, because you need to start treatment. In particular, memory worsens, the headaches become more frequent, vertigo, head heaviness occurs. Disturbed sleep, becoming more anxious.
There is emotional instability, the mood can change.
May manifest themselves:
- the decrease in visual acuity and hearing;
- noise in the ears;
- autonomic disorders;
- General fatigue;
- lethargy the day, trouble sleeping at night.
The second stage - subcompencirovanna. It more worsens the condition of the tissues of the brain, encephalopathy develops, the symptoms become more pronounced, they almost never back down.Headache, vertigo. The last factor can very negatively affect stability during walking.
In addition, the head appears big noise. The patient becoming less physically active. The mood becomes depressed, attention decreases. But worst of all, often begins a disorder of the swallowing reflex, the reflexes of coughing and sneezing, and impaired speech.
Head and hands are shaking, vision and hearing are also being violated, people often discoordinated what he's getting much more difficult to deal with various household tasks.
The third stage - decompensated. The most difficult and problematic stage. Her encephalopathy develops to such an extent that the brain can not be provide sufficient oxygen, and therefore tissues begin to break down in particularly problematic situations can even begin atrophy of the cerebral cortex. The patient may begin to suffer from severe epileptic seizures.
The consequences can be severe up to profound dementia. Identify neurological syndromes, in particular, Parkinsonian and pseudobulbar.
Encephalopathy of the brain can have various causes depending on whether it is congenital or acquired. In the first case problems arise before birth or during the first week after birth. The causes congenital disease are usually:
- complications and diseases during pregnancy;
- births that occurred before the time;
- the problematic development of the genital tract;
- excessive body weight in the fetus;
- suffocation by an umbilical cord;
- neuroinfections and much more.
When encephalopathy have brain acquired, the key reasons are:
- traumatic brain injury;
- changes in the brain vascular type;
- vegetovascular dystonia;
- liver failure and otherwise.
But it is important to understand that all processes in the body are interrelated, because one child under the influence of the above reasons may not suffer from disease at all, and the other, even without their presence, encephalopathy of the brain is manifested in a marked degree.
The reason may be the abundance of small hidden problems in the body that combine to weaken to a significant degree the Central nervous system.
Encephalopathy of the brain can be diagnosed by various methods. In the beginning there hasto be conducted basic clinical research while viewing tests memory status, psychological state, coordination and so on. It is likely the presence of changes in the mental state of the patient.
But diagnosed only if the mental problems are identified in conjunction with other physiological diagnosis, such as chronic disease and so on.
Apply a few key types of therapy:
- collar zone massage.
Can also be used, artificial ventilation, dialysis and other measures to counter an acute manifestation of the disease. To reduce symptoms, often used breathing exercises and reflexology.
What medication is considered the key. A doctor can be assigned to a number of drugs, due to which encephalopathy have brain and its consequences can be minimized to the maximum extent.
The main types of drugs used to combat the described problem are:
- antihypertensives, designed to treat the symptoms of hypertension;
- hypocholesteremic and hypolipidemic effect, which are used in the vascular lesions of atherosclerotic type;
- the means for compensation of the violation of the venous outflow;
- means of improving microcirculation;
- the means for preventing sosudistyh spasms and improve cerebral blood flow.
This is the key types of drugs that are usually taken, when there is a encephalopathy in the brain. But doctors may prescribe other medications.
It is important to understand that private treatment is unacceptable, particularly when encephalopathy brain (dyscirculatory (vascular), you are choosing the wrong medication can only aggravate the situation.
Usually prescribed different drugs in combination, and their courses are repeated after some time, usually 1-3 months. Prognosis depends on the extent to which the damaged tissue, how advanced the disease is, how realistic is it to conduct one or another specific treatment. In some situations, the maximum that can be achieved is the stabilization of the patient, in other cases the forecasts may be more optimistic and treatment can produce a tangible result.
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