How to treat cerebral atherosclerosis
In 50% of cases of cerebral atherosclerosis is the main cause of death from cardiovascular disease. A unified theory explaining the causes of diseases, today does not exist. However, medical statistics show that the disease is treatable, especially if diagnosed in the early stages.
The clinical picture
Cerebral atherosclerosis is a type of classical with the only difference that the center of the lesions are the blood vascular of the brain. The mechanism of changes is the same for all arteries.
A special role in the development of the disease is a lipoprotein, or rather certain kinds of it. In the human body these substances are transport vehicles for cholesterol - lipid, contributing to processing fat, and the synthesis of hormones and vitamin O.
Functions of different lipoproteins:
- lipoproteins very low -, low-and intermediate - density VLDL, LDL, LPP, respectively, carry and release cholesterol in the cells;
- the high-density lipoprotein - HDL, takes cholesterol and removes it from the cell.
Cholesterol is produced by the body and delivered together with food. Substances are in a dynamic balance, ensure the normal operation of cells. However, at infringement of balance - eating foods that are rich in LDL, for example, the balance is disturbed and lipoproteins begin to accumulate in the arteries.
The development of the disease
- In the first stage of the disease on the vessel walls are formed of the lipid spots. First, the lipoproteins of low and very low density, accumulate in the intima of the artery - a single-celled endothelial layer. When the critical values of the lipoprotein can react with a component of intercellular substance. The reaction product is deposited on the artery wall. The symptoms do not appear.
- In the second phase of the lipid spot is growing, bracing flowing with the blood lipoproteins and eventually formed atherosclerotic plaque.
- The third stage is characterized by growth of plaque. This point is very interesting from an academic point of view, as the growing education simultaneously produces substances that prevent the appearance of new cells of the vessel wall, and substances that support this process. Treatment during this period can be reduced to the change of diet, as the concentration in the blood of a sufficient number of paps will completely destroy and remove the plaque, breaking it is a strange balance.
If treatment is not performed, the division of smooth muscle cells localized on the site of the plaque - clearancevessel narrows and in other parts of the artery arise the microscopic damage that triggers the formation of blood clots. Of them removed in the blood stream. With the further growth of the plaque occurs ingrowth of new vascular, which hemorrhage: platelet overflows supplied with blood.
Furthermore, the changes are accompanied by calcinosis - deposition of calcium salts on the walls of arteries, causing them to become brittle, deformed and destroyed.
The most serious consequences must be attributed to the mortification of those parts of the brain, which caters to the damaged artery. Eventually, the tissue degenerates, replaced the coupling, and the plot loses its functionality.
Diagnosis of cerebral atherosclerosis is difficult, because the symptoms of the disease, especially in the case of lesions of the arteries of the brain are vague in nature.
Atherosclerosis of cerebral vascular affects the normal blood circulation in certain areas. Therefore, the symptoms often not associated with pain, although he is present, and with the weakening of the brain.
- Observed impairment of attention and memory function.
- Reduced mental capacity.
- Appears insomnia, deteriorating eyesight and hearing may change taste sensations.
- Headache localized in occipital and forehead, accompanied by dizziness, noise in the ears.
- Formed a stable low mood, irritability, exacerbated by various phobias. On the background of cerebral atherosclerosis are evolving rapidly as obsessive: fear of dying from hemorrhage, suspicion about the presence of an incurable disease.
- The state of emptiness, indifference to the environment, a delayed and incorrect answers to simple questions are a typical symptom of severe damage to arteries of the brain.
When the stability of the described symptoms treatment should be carried out immediately until surgery.
Factors of influence
- Smoking - according to the who is one of the main "instigators". Its action is very diverse, but the most dangerous is the narrowing of the arteries, including the brain, and loss of elasticity of the walls.
- Poor diet, associated with the use of products with a high level of LDL. Usually it is the animal fats and food with high content.
- Diabetes is a disorder of processing engine grease, and sugary substances, which ultimately affects the blood vascular of the brain.
- Physical activity - its absence leads to at least hypertension and further complications.
- Obesity is associated with all previous factors, except Smoking, and that represents the greatest threat.
- Alcohol abuse and neurological disorders have a rather provoking and aggravating action if we are not talking about drunkenness.
For the diagnosis of cerebral atherosclerosis a number of studies.
- The elucidation of symptoms in a survey of the patient.
- Listening systolic murmur in the aorta, mandatory palpation of all accessible arteries. When lesions of cerebral vascular method does not apply.
- Blood immunological analysis on the content of cholesterol in the blood.
- Angiography - a method allows to assess the degree of narrowing of the blood vascular of the brain.
- Doppler uniceramic arteries.
- Magnetic resonance imaging together with angiography method provides maximum information and is the most accurate.
Provides a set of measures and depends on the severity of the damage.
A mandatory regime
On the 1st and 2nd stage of cerebral atherosclerosis when unexpressed symptoms all treatment can be to follow a proper lifestyle. Complications and more severe affection of cerebral arteries, the regime you want to comply with to eliminate the risk factors.
- Food - the exclusion of foods with a high content of LDL cholesterol: fatty meats, confectionery.
- Quitting Smoking - there is no point in the treatment of vasodilatory drugs, if the patient continues to smoke.
- Sufficient exercise - includes sports for half an hour 4 times a day. In the later stages of the disease the initial load should be less.
- Weight reduction - due to the implementation of all the above requirements.
Dosage and duration is determined by the observing specialist must be strictly adhered to. Many drugs used in the treatment, have side effects, and it is important to prevent their occurrence.
The treatment is conducted with the following groups of drugs:
- antiplatelet agents or antiplatelet, same aspirin, the drugs prevent the formation of blood clots, as it operates at the initial stage of blood clotting;
- lipid-lowering - prevent the development of cerebral atherosclerosis. The most important of these statins and derivatives fibre acid. Medicines prinimayutsya for life, the dose varies depending on the level of lipids in the blood. Fenofibrate can be used in patients with diabetes mellitus;
- vasodilator drugs are prescribed according to the patient's condition. Their task: to remove the spasm of the muscles of the vessel, exert a temporary impact;
- anti-inflammatory in General, increases the resistance of the vessel to the action of negative factors;
- when symptoms of depression are appointed antidepressants in the anxiety and aggravation of phobias - tranquilizers.
A radical method of treatment requires stenosing atherosclerosis of cerebral vascular. Open method and remove plaque in uniceramic vascular. The plaque is excised along with a portion of the artery, and the vessel set on knocking drainage. When a large area of destruction used prosthetics.
Removal of plaques in intracranial vascular used stents and balloons. The latter by means of a catheter introduced into the artery in the affected area and inflated to crush the plaque.
Cerebral atherosclerosis is considered as a chronic disease. Depending on the stage at which treatment is started, it takes different forms. In severe lesions the patient has a lifetime to take certain drugs, when light is sufficient compliance with the rules of supply and Smoking cessation.
You may also be interested to read about a similar disease called atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic arteries.
The author of the article: Maria Paramonova - a neurologist.