The symptoms of thrombosis and its treatment
In healthy vascular the blood circulates constantly, never stopping. Under the influence of certain factors of their valve system weakens, due to which blood flow slows down, and in the lumen of the vein is formed by one or several clots of different sizes. So begins the deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities is a dangerous condition which without treatment is threatened by many severe complications.
The mechanism of development of thrombosis
A thrombus is a blood clot stagnant, attached to the wall of the damaged vessel and subject to growth as the progression of the disease. To prevent bleeding and blood loss, the body begins to vigorously develop red blood cells, fibrin and platelets, what is red thrombus, plugging the lumen in Vienna.
The formation of a blood clot is possible under the following conditions:
- The stagnation of blood
- The increase of its coagulability
- The disruption of the structure of the vessel wall
This is the Virchow triad, the classical picture of the disease, which in the future may be complicated by disorders of the trophic tissue and development of pulmonary embolism (PE).
Types of venous thrombosis and its causes
Specialists phlebologists distinguish primary and secondary forms of deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities.
Primary form (resins) characterized by poor attachment resulting in the vessel lumen and of the thrombus to the wall and high probability of sudden break. This form leads to the development of pulmonary embolism - the terrible and deadly complications.
The secondary form (thrombophlebitis) occurs when inflammation of the inner lining of the vein. Happens durable fixation of the clot, so the risk of a sudden detachment is significantly reduced.
Causes thrombosis is rooted in the lifestyle of some physiological and pathological conditions where people are forced to take drugs that increase blood clotting. Are important as trauma and infection.
The likelihood of developing deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities is increased when:
- Varicose veins
- Pregnancy and the postpartum period
- Obesity and sedentary lifestyle
- The reception contraceptives
- Hormone replacement therapy
- Injuries and bacterial infections
- Diseases of the autoimmune system
Not the last role in formation of blood clots in the deep veins of gaps plays and age - most often, thrombosis occurs in elderlypeople.
Symptoms of deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities begins suddenly, however, his first symptoms in most cases, have no acute: at the very beginning of the disease the person notes only heaviness and pain in the inner thighs, feet. Later edema.
During the inspection the doctor notes the number of required symptoms suggestive of thrombosis:
- Pratt symptom: glossy skin, protruding saphenous vein
- Symptom of Lowenberg: pain in the affected limb when attempting to pump air into the cuff device for measuring blood pressure wrapped around the Shin. Tenderness is felt at 80 mm Hg. article
- Symptom of Payr: occurrence of radiating pain in the calf muscle calf after pressing a finger on the inside of the ankle
Thrombosis of the deep veins of the affected limb is cooler to the touch. There is also the blanching of the skin below the thrombosed site in a few days - its blueness.
In acute thrombophlebitis of the body temperature may rise to significant numbers 39-40 degrees.
Special measures for diagnosis and treatment
A simple doctor's examination and feeling the limbs allow to estimate only the external manifestations of the disease. To determine the exact location of the thrombus, its size and the risk of developing pulmonary embolism as the most threatening complication, conduct duplex scanning of the veins.
Treatment of deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities in the outpatient or surgical methods depending on the severity of the condition.
This treatment is valid only in one case: if you installed the thrombosis of the veins of the lower leg. It includes a number of measures aimed at fixation of a blood clot, normalization of blood flow and the elimination of thrombosis and prevention of possible complications.
Among the mandatory measures include:
- Bed rest for 5-7 days (affected limb must be elevated), the ban on any heat treatments
- Correction of blood clotting with drugs-anticoagulants
- The appointment of phlebotonics and analgesics
Special care requires the appointment of thrombolytics - drugs that thin the blood clots: this measure may be effective only at an early stage of the disease, but the difficulty consists in the fact that most deep vein thrombosis is diagnosed fairly late, so the purpose of thrombolytic drugs can cause pulmonary embolism due to fragmentation of the clot.
If necessary, also be anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents.
Especially dangerous floating thrombus - a blood clot, whose head is attached to the vessel wall, and the body and tail are located in the lumen. The head most often remains in place, and the remaining part of the thrombus may be fragmented and break away, creating the risk of pulmonary embolism. In such cases, the problem can be solved only by surgical treatment of deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, since the main purpose of the intervention - the prevention of thromboembolism.
Is it possible to treat a thrombosis traditional methods?
Venous thrombosis - a condition so dangerous and unpredictable that self-treatment with traditional methods is absolutely unacceptable. Only a qualitative survey using ultrasonic techniques and occupational therapy under control of blood picture can help to cope with this pathology.
Prevention of venous thrombosis
To treat already established disease is always more difficult than to try to warn him. Therefore, in order to avoid the development of thrombosis need to pay attention to their health:
- Enough to move
- Be sure to take breaks with little physical exercises when performing any sedentary work
- Strictly control the length of treatment and dosage of contraceptive drugs, any drugs, prescribed for the existing chronic diseases
- To optimize drinking regime and diet to prevent blood clots
- Quit Smoking
- Thoroughly treat any injuries and infectious diseases
These measures will be a reliable prevention of blood circulation disorders, helps to maintain the elasticity of vascular walls and prevent many diseases.
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