Flushing of the skin
Flushing of the skin are familiar to anyone who has ever blushed or took too long in the sun. A rush of blood to her cheeks, the feeling of "burning" the face of the usual signs of excessive blood vascular. It is not a disease and often goes unnoticed.
But the hyperemia that does not disappear for several days - a serious cause for concern.
The clinical picture
Under the redness mean the overflow of the blood - vascular of an organ or tissue. It occurs due to excessive inflow of arterial blood and is expressed by the visible reddening of the skin, local increase of temperature, sometimes accompanied by itching and swelling.
Redness is purely external symptom: blood filled vascular, no time to give oxygen to the tissues, an excess of oxyhemoglobin in venous blood and causes redness.
Triggered by flushing of the face or other parts of the body both external and internal factors, and very diverse. Short-term congestion, caused by physical stimuli is called physiological. This phenomenon is natural and does not cause consequences. Excessive blood supply that occurs under the influence of unusual factors, called pathological. It may be the result or symptom of the disease.
The cause of excessive blood flow are external or internal factors not related to diseases:
- prolonged exposure to the sun or wind;
- the effect of cold;
- strong emotions - anger, shame, excitement, anxiety and so on. Experiences require enhanced blood flow to the brain, which causes redness of the face;
- hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy, breast-feeding, menopause. This is a natural phenomenon, although it may be transformed and painful;
- physical activity - running, jumping, swimming, hard work, and so on.
The hallmark physiological hyperemia is the brevity and obvious reasons. In relation to the nature of the factors provoking the blood flow, there are two forms.
- Working or functional. It's the flow of blood to the organ, accompanied by the strengthening of its functions. For example, the redness of the muscle during contractions - physical activity, or blood flow to the pancreas in the digestion process. The latter, of course, not outwardly manifested. Emotional or mental stress causes the working hyperemia of the brain.
- Jet - the flow of blood to the body after a shortlimitations. Observed in kidney, brain and muscles. Thus kompensiruet kind of debt on oxygen, formed as a result of cessation of blood flow. A typical example is filling with blood limbs after staying in an uncomfortable position.
Here are the cause of the pathological factors both external and internal:
- toxins in case of poisoning or certain diseases and medications;
- chemical - this refers to the toxins existing outside;
- burns and frostbite;
- mechanical impact, for example, venous congestion arising at compression of veins by tumor or edema of tissue;
- allergies - arterial redness often appears as a hypersensitivity of the vascular to the stimulus;
- infectious diseases - in this case, the temperature rise is the cause of congestion, not a consequence;
- inflammation of all kinds.
The pathological form is quite short, for example, in acute respiratory disease, but often becomes protracted. Treatment should provide not only a way of getting rid of the underlying disease, but also from unpleasant consequences.
Pathological forms are divided into two types
- Acute accompanied by inflammation, infectious diseases, and poisoning.
- Chronic - associated with metabolic disturbances and inflammation of internal organs. May be accompanied by reddening of the skin, although not necessarily. Often redness of the facial skin connected with the disturbance in the digestive organs, and the characteristic location of reddened areas can tell the careful observer the true cause of the disease.
The location of the congested sections depends on the nature of the lesion. The burn is a large part of the body after excessive exposure to the sun refers to the common form. And the appearance of crimson spots on a single area of the skin local. Some types of local hyperemia in the skin did not occur, they can be seen only during surgery.
Varieties of the disease
Blood flow, but rather speaking, blood stasis is formed for three reasons: either due to active work of the arteries, either due to lack of functionality of the veins, or for both reasons. The formation mechanism of the disease is divided into active, passive and mixed hyperemia.
The active form
Active or arterial occurs as a result of excessive blood flow to organs and tissues. There is the expansion of blood vascular in the area, acceleration of blood flow and an increase in the number of operating vascular.
medium;">Arterial hyperemia is characterized by the following features:
- the high flow velocity leads to increase in blood pressure on the site. Obviously, if protracted, this phenomenon will have dire consequences;
- decreases the difference between the amount of oxygen in venous and arterial blood. Tissue or organ at the same time receive a normal or increased amount of oxygen, but the regime itself requires intensive work of the heart and lungs;
- temperature rise - the rush of large volumes of hot blood, of course, causes a local increase in temperature and an increase in tissue volume;
- arterial hyperemia becomes the cause of high lymphoablative, so that there is swelling, hyperemic tissue;
- if arterial hyperemia appears on the skin, the color of the spots is bright red.
Narrowing and expansion of blood vascular occurs not spontaneously, but through the work of the vasodilator nerves. Arterial hyperemia is formed according to two different schemes.
- Narodnichesky - toning vasodilator nerves. This mechanism is implemented in all physiological factors - redness of the face under the influence of anger or of joy, a rush of blood to the working body, and in some pathological. The latter will include, for example, nairovirus infection acting directly on nerve fibers.
- Neuroparalitical arterial hyperemia is the result of a fall tone vasodilator nerves. Typical example is the increased blood flow to the organ after temporary anemia. Causes are physiological in nature - the compression and pathological - accumulation of ascitic fluid, prevent the inflow of arterial blood.
In medicine arterial hyperemia is often used as a therapeutic technique: because increased blood flow promotes rapid tissue oxygenation and removal of decay products. The same mechanism is used in such familiar procedures as venepunktia. On the shoulder of the patient applied a tourniquet and weakened after 2 minutes.
In the end, dramatically increases the blood flow in the arteries, respectively, and increases blood circulation in the veins. And, therefore, to take blood from a vein becomes much easier.
Types of arterial hyperemia
There are several of the most typical forms provoked by different reasons.
- The inflammatory as a rule, focal. Accompanies inflammation of the organ or tissue in a specific area of the body. Is a secondary character and disappears after elimination of major causes.
- Blood the anemia, that is,temporary restriction of blood flow. After the cause - squeezing, swelling, blood vascular temporarily overwhelmed, trying to saturate tissues with oxygen.
- Redistributive redness - for example, decompression sickness in divers. A consequence of the small difference between the volume of oxygen in arterial and venous blood.
- Plethora based on arteriovenous pile, for example, when the wound portion of venous blood is in the artery.
- Collateral - arises as compensation of the complicated motion of blood through the main vascular. Blood flow partially redistributed over smaller vascular, while not eliminating the obstacle mainline - tumor, blood clot.
Venous congestion or stasis, is the result of poor working veins. Came in arterial blood in the normal amount or excessive is not returned in full and becomes stagnant in the tissues or organ.
The reasons are different:
- extension veins because of varicose veins or, for example, overheating disrupts the normal function of the venous valves. In the end, the blood is not ejected completely, and back;
- the increase in blood viscosity, which hinders its circulation;
- the pressure decrease;
- venous hyperemia is a sign of irregularities in the discharge of cardiac muscle;
- blockage of the vein - thrombosis or embolism;
- the compression of veins - mechanical external or internal - due to tumor, edema and so on.
Venous hyperemia useful application finds, and with the exception of special occasions when you want to stop for a brief period the development of infection.
Its direct consequence is hypoxia of the organ or tissue, as it interferes with the normal circulation of blood and the body receives the proper amount of oxygen.
Signs passive forms are:
- the local temperature decrease in the affected area;
- cyanosis of skin and mucous;
- the increase of the cross section of the veins and venules - veins swelling becomes apparent;
- swelling - hazardous and provide an additional compressive pressure, hampering the already poor blood flow;
- slow and stop the circulation of blood in the capillaries;
- when protracted course of the disease may be external and internal bleeding;
- stasis causes the development of hypoxia on the metabolic disorder.
If passive hyperemia manifested externally - cyanosis, swelling of veins close to the skin, to detect and diagnose. But when it comes to internal organs, to apply special methods of examination, Doppler scan, ultrasound and so on.
This type of violation of circulation of blood is among the most easy. Redness of skin is formed due to the inflow of blood to the superficial small vascular located under the skin. Manifests as bright red or purple spots in different shapes. In the later stages there are boils, pimples, spider veins.
The appearance of redness on the face.
- The most famous example - the blush on her face from the cold or embarrassment. This form is in the nature of short-term and is not worrisome.
- Redness of the face due to the mechanical and chemical treatments is also a frequent phenomenon. Prolonged exposure in the sun or in the tanning bed, skin brushing, exfoliation and so on are irritants. To offset the negative impact to the skin is excessive amount of blood. In this case, it may last for a few days.
- Redness of the face, except the forehead, is always accompanied by an increase in temperature and disappears after restoration of normal temperature.
- Hyperemia cause infectious diseases, enteric and associated with disorders of the digestive tract works. Redness is local in nature and has a very specific form. Is a secondary disease and treated concurrently with major illness.
- Skin disease - in this case the treatment prescribed by a dermatologist.
Despite the relative safety, this form is perhaps the greatest experience, because it looks not very aesthetically pleasing. Not only that, the face is covered with uneven red spots, but due to the increased temperature in these areas the skin peels off and dries up to the appearance of microcracks.
Hyperemia of both primary and secondary can be cured quite successfully. However, the key to sustainability of treatment outcomes is a way of life. Whole foods and affordable physical activity contribute to the restoration of normal blood flow, no less than the medication.