The symptoms of arterial hypotension and its treatment
Low blood pressure is not as harmless as one might think. The steady lowering of normal pressure to 20 units occurs hypotension — painful condition, acute or chronic course.
When the HELL is reduced, disturbed circulation of the blood, depleted nutrition of brain cells. Decreases and the output products of metabolism, which causes the characteristic symptoms of intoxication — nausea, headache, lethargy.
About hypotension I say, when blood pressure drops to 90/60 mm Hg and below. In these circumstances, there is a shortage of supply of body cells.
The etiology of the disease
In the brain there is a centre of regulation, controlling fluctuations in blood pressure. It works like this: the baroreceptors (nerve endings located in the walls of arteries) to respond to reduced pressure, sending a signal to the Central nervous system. The nerve fibres convey the impulse to the endocrine system. In the bloodstream ejected a shot of adrenaline, and the blood vascular constrict, raising blood pressure to normal.
Causes of low blood pressure are in violation of the regulation of blood vascular.
The body reacts to a persistent decrease in vascular tone in a number of pathological factors:
- Neurocirculatory dystonia (80% of cases);
- Brain tumor (not necessarily malignant), is affected when the centre of the regulation;
- The different nature shock — cardiogenic, septic, pain;
- Massive blood loss, including hidden, or severe dehydration (burns, profuse diarrhea, frequent vomiting);
- Acute heart failure;
- Myocarditis, arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy;
- Chronic psycho-emotional stress, which exhausted compensatory mechanisms of the Central nervous system;
- Chronic infection of the nasopharynx;
- Pancreatitis, hepatitis, cirrhosis of different etiology;
- Diabetes, B12 deficiency anemia, hypothyroidism;
- Neuroses, depression, psychological trauma;
- Constant lack of sleep, chronic fatigue, excessive physical and mental stress;
- Chronic alcoholism;
- Rigid diets;
- Overdose of drugs, reducing blood pressure, side effects of medicines;
- Long bed rest.
Intracranial hypotension with persistent headaches can have two main causes: a traumatic brain injury or a degenerative disc disease in the cervical spine. Other possible causes of chronic birth and obstetric trauma, rotary subluxationcervical vertebra, bad tumbling over her head, careless of the sharp turn of the neck.
Hypertensive status in medicine sistematizirovat on various grounds. First there are acute and chronic form of the disease.
Acute hypotension (a sharp decrease in pressure to the critical values, or collapse) develops during life-threatening conditions. This includes myocardial infarction, acute peritonitis, pulmonary embolism, allergic reactions. To rescue the patient will need urgent medical care.
Chronic hypotension, in turn, is divided into primary and secondary.
The primary (physiological) is a pathology manifested in the following forms:
- As an option individual standards. People live with low pressure, and feels good;
- As a compensatory adaptive form of manual workers and athletes;
- As the usual low pressure, typical of the inhabitants of the highlands, the hot and cold climatic zones;
- Syndrome peripheral autonomic failure;
- As a result of chronic stress, fatigue, intense mental work.
Secondary (symptomatic) hypotension occurs as a result of various diseases. Treatment of secondary low pressure does not make sense, if not cured the underlying disease.
Apart in a series of hypotonic disorders is postprandial hypotension (BCPs). The specificity of it is that blood pressure falls after eating. Syndrome with blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, dizziness. The causes of pathology are still not defined.
Installed only some of the factors that contribute to GPR:
- The age of 65 years;
- Pathological changes in the brain;
- Failures in the endocrine system;
- Neuroses, psychopathy;
- The effects of hemodialysis and kidneys.
The treatment of such patients is based on the regulation of nutrition, change of lifestyle and taking the prescribed medicines.
Surgery is often used the so-called controlled hypotension — an artificial decrease in blood pressure by administering special drugs. This method is used for operations on the heart, on the abdominal and thoracic aorta during the removal of tumors.
Features of hypotension in children
It is believed that the risk of hypotension in the child increases significantly if the pregnancy in the mother proceeded with violations.
Vascularanomalies first appear in younger adolescence, facilitated by the following factors:
- The beginning of puberty;
- Fatigue and stressful situation at school;
- Lack of physical activity, holding the whole free time on the computer;
- Frequent infections;
- Foci of chronic inflammation in the body (carious teeth, tonsillitis, sinusitis, adenoids);
- Irrational erratic power.
For children and is characterized by orthostatic hypotension, when dizziness occurs with a rapid change in body position — getting out of bed or off the floor. When straightening the blood pours from the head to the lower extremities. This can occur short-term semiconscious state (orthostatic collapse).
Hypotension in children causes headache, fatigue, apathy, stabbing pain in the heart. The child becomes tearful, resentful, distracted. Reduced performance in school.
Parents should be concerned if the 10-year-old child indicators BP below 80/45 mm Hg. St, 14-year-old below 90/50, 16-year-old — below 90/55. Medication is only administered to children with neurotic and cardiovascular abnormalities, others help physical exercise with a good level of sleep and nutrition sessions with a psychologist, physiotherapy.
The clinical symptoms of the disease
Signs of hypotension are divided into primary and secondary. Such a classification depends on the underlying causes of disease.
Common symptoms of hypotension are the same:
- Weakness, poor mood, reduced efficiency;
- Dizziness due to brain hypoxia;
- Nausea, lethargy, headache of varying intensity, as evidence of delay products of metabolism in cells.
Secondary (symptomatic) signs and symptoms associated with any disease or damaging factor:
- Headaches pressing, squeezing, bursting of character, typical 95% of patients.
- Constant feeling of heaviness in the head. The reason — poor circulation in the veins of the brain, caused by low tone of cerebral veins.
- Pre-existing conditions, fainting.
- A tendency to motion sickness.
- Seasonal deterioration of health.
- Spastic constipation, flatulence, aerophagia (belching air).
- Sleep disorders.
- Violation of thermoregulation (cold feet and hands).
- Aching and stabbing pain in the heart. Observed as a result of lower pressure in the coronaryarteries.
- Reduced body temperature.
- Pallor, rarely cyanosis.
- Spasmodic pulse.
- Heightened sensitivity to sudden light and loud sounds.
- The decline of libido, sexual dysfunction.
- Autonomic crises. Proceed with marked slowing of heart rate, sudden drop in blood pressure, cold sweat, abdominal pain, spasm of the larynx.
The classic symptoms of hypotension to emotionally unstable patients is the inability to concentrate, irritability or confusion.
Patients prone to depression, tired quickly. Morning experiencing lethargy, reluctance to get to work. By mid-day they become more energized, but 16-17 hours the activity drops again, and sick in urgent need of rest.
If the diagnosis doctor must ascertain the cause of hypotension. For accurate assessment of the level of blood pressure produced 3-fold measurement of blood pressure with intervals of 3-5 minutes.
If necessary, assigned to 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. The patient's shoulder is attached to the cuff is connected to a portable monitor. During the day the instrument automatically measures and records blood pressure values.
To confirm the diagnosis of secondary hypotension is assigned to advanced comprehensive examination:
- Orthostatic test;
- Rheoencephalography (the study of the cerebrovascular system);
- The study of the fundus;
- A blood test for creatinine, cholesterol, electrolytes, lipid profile.
In severe hypotension are echoencephaloscopy, craniography. To confirm the diagnosis the doctor gives the patient a referral to a specialist — a cardiologist, neurologist, endocrinologist, ophthalmologist.
Treatment of hypotension
In the case of a sharp drop in blood pressure (collapse) is hospitalization of the patient and the subsequent shock treatment:
- In acute blood loss — blood transfusion up to a normal volume;
- Intoxication — intravenous transfusion of physiological and disinfecting solutions, gastric lavage, administration of antidotes;
- In tumors, peritonitis, myocardial infarction is surgery.
First aid in case of a critical decrease in blood pressure
If the collapse had happened outside the hospital, call an ambulance and start of resuscitation events:
- Lay person on a hard surface, loosen the clothes and belt;
- To open Windows;
- To give a sniff cotton wool with ammonia;
- To try to stop the bleeding.
It is strictly forbidden to shake the patient, to clap on cheeks, to give him vasodilators — heart medicine, nitroglycerin, Nospanum.
Therapy of chronic hypotension
Treatment of arterial hypotension physiological type requires establishing routines and nutrition, as well as the use of drugs.
We recommend the following healing methods:
- Sports — no sudden moves and tilts;
- Hydrotherapy, hydromassage, emotional shower;
- Electrophoresis with fenilafrinom, bromine a codeine, caffeine;
- Acupuncture, electrosleep.
To drug treatment are assigned the following medications:
- Tincture lemongrass, ginseng, Eleutherococcus, aralia;
- Cerebroprotector — Cinnarizine, Mildronate, Cytoflavin;
- Nootropic drugs — Piracetam, Glycine, Phenotropil;
- Anticholinergics — Bellataminalum, Bellaston;
- Sedatives Trioxazine and Tofisopam (in severe anxiety, hypochondria, emotional tension);
- Antioxidants (Glutargin Essentiale, Liping) and vitamins a, b, E.
Medications and physical therapy prescribed by the doctor after identification of the cause of hypotension. Self-medication is dangerous, as the body's response to tonic preparations can be unpredictable.
To increase blood pressure folk medicine recommends the following herbal teas and fees:
- Freshly brewed green and black tea;
- The juice of the leaves of a Thistle;
- The infusion of the flowers of immortelle, chamomile, prickly Thistle, taken in equal parts;
- Collect grass Hypericum, marjoram, knotweed, mint, rose hips;
- A collection from the root of calamus, elecampane, dandelion, Rhodiola rosea.
Stimulating effect of ginger root, Royal jelly, fresh red beet juice. Not recommended drinks containing caffeine. After vasoconstriction occurs persistent expansion. This leads to stretching and thinning of the vascular wall. A similar effect on the blood vascular alcohol and nicotine.
In conclusion. The prognosis of chronic hypotension in the majority of cases favorable, if in compliance with the instructions of the doctor. Low pressure is usually observed in human life, as a border state between health and disease.