Treatments and causes vasospasm
Vasospasm or spasm of the blood vascular is a narrowing of arteries due to excess prolonged-reduction walls. A spasm is temporary - up to 20 minutes, but the consequences in this case can carry a heavy character.
The mechanism of disorders
Electrochemical basis of the spasm is reduced to the disorder of the transport of metal ions - sodium, potassium and calcium. The lack of sodium and potassium leads to indiscriminate smooth muscle contraction, and an influx of calcium ions promotes spasserovannye walls and does not reduce muscle tone.
The vasospasm of the vascular has a local character, usually in the area of inflammation, thrombus, aneurysm, and does not apply to all the line of the arterioles. However, as a result of the flow constriction section of the tissues in the area of spazmirovannah doesn't receive oxygen and nutrition in sufficient quantity. The frequent repetition of such phenomena develops ischemia.
The spasm can be physiological and pathological.
The narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel is one of the protective mechanisms of the body. With open injuries and wounds spasm of the arteries reduces blood loss. Upon cooling bleeding the periphery reduces heat loss and allows focus on serving a more important internal organs.
In stressful situations - danger, constriction of the arterioles allows to increase blood pressure. In this case, the blood is thrown adrenaline, mobilizing all forces of the body for the upcoming fight.
Pathology called excessive reaction to an irritant, not commensurate with the degree of irritation. If the normal cooling of the warm air quickly causes vasodilation, pathological spasm with the same outward signs - white "alabaster" skin, bruising, reduction in skin temperature may occur at any time and with temperature and is poorly connected.
Vasospasm appears to be the first stage of disorders in the cardiovascular system. Ignore the signs, unfortunately, happens quite often: spasserovannye short and because it seems harmless.
In fact, the periodic "starvation" of the tissues ends in tears:
- enhanced swelling of tissues in the zone of spazmirovannah. This disturbed permeability of the capillary walls, resulting in loss of protein;
- weaken the walls of venules, possible paresis of blood vascular, which automatically leads to violation of blood circulation;
- more oftenobserved narrowing of the vascular, the more pronounced become the signs of ischemia. Possible partial or complete loss of functionality of the organ and the development of necrotic complications.
Depending on the localization of the zone there are several types of vasospasm:
- vascular spasm of peripheral capillaries, small arterioles. To the greatest degree subject to the hands;
- the narrowing of the channel of the main vascular - the consequences of such spasm is much more noticeable and much harder;
- vasospasm of coronary vascular;
- the cerebral vasospasm.
The clinical picture associated with semirounded body and manifests itself as a lack of functionality.
Causes spasm of blood vascular
The mechanism of the disease has not been studied. Besides it is not identical for different vascular regions.
Unclear the cause of the pathological vasospasm, although there are a few factors contributing to the development of the disease:
- Smoking is one of the most potent external factors. Smoking causes permanent narrowing of vascular and any other, the weakest factor - a cold, for example, can lead to spasms;
- intoxication serouglerodom compounds and lead. Now quite rare, as occurs in constant contact with toxic substances;
- atherosclerosis - it is known that the vasoconstriction is most likely to occur on the site, where there is an atherosclerotic plaque;
- inflammation of the blood vascular of a different nature;
- disorders of the nervous regulation - the most extensive group, as cause of disorders can be many factors both internal and external in nature: failure in the endocrine system to any neurosis.
Description of the symptoms
The external manifestation of the disease is more pronounced if associated with a constriction of the capillaries. In this case, the affected area takes on an alabaster-white color. Spasms of the major blood vascular visible only on the deterioration of functionality.
- Angiospasticescoy syndrome is characteristic of Raynaud's disease. Sometimes it is called a symptom of "white finger". There is bleeding of the hands, the fingers are white, lose sensitivity, cold.
- Net livedo - area of skin (usually on the thighs or ankles) becomes uniform bluish tinge, sometimes in the form of a grid, the skin around the area turns pale and cold. Cinemacast due to partial paralysis venules. In further spasm leads to severe swelling of the affected area and the beginning of the necrotic process.
- Spasm of the main artery - "leg of the commander". The picture is similarRaynaud's disease, but extends to the entire lower limb. The leg becomes white, the skin temperature drops significantly. Lingering spasm, the skin may acquire a bluish tinge, due to paresis of the venules.
- The symptoms of coronary spasm are identical to the signs of angina: chest pain predominantly at rest and not motion, is paroxysmal in nature.
- Cerebral vasospasm usually accompanied by atherosclerosis of the vascular of the brain, however, appears for other reasons. Its symptoms due to the affected areas of the brain.
The treatment of the disease
Self-treatment is excluded. Vasospasm in the majority of cases are related to some other illness and are not so much separate disease, how much accompanying. Without a thorough examination and diagnosis to get rid of the disease will fail.
Possible, used conservative treatment. It consists in the following:
- treatment of the underlying disease - atherosclerosis, inflammation, hypertension;
- the restoration of normal nervous regulation;
- eliminating the effects of temporary ischemia.
It should be noted that in the treatment of all ailments related to the circulatory system is of great importance the participation of the patient.
Enough physical activity, the use of physiological procedures, electrophoresis, ozokeritnye applications, hydrogen sulfide baths are not just beneficial to the state, but also significantly help to medication.
The secret is very simple: movement stimulates blood circulation, and the possibility of the risk of cramps is significantly reduced.
Drugs are assigned according to the localization of the disease. So, in cases of cerebral vasospasm used antispasmodic drugs - no-Spa, papaverine, spastic coronary nitroglycerin. To relieve symptoms prescribe drugs that are calcium channel blockers - verapamil, thus preventing the influx of calcium ions to the cell walls.
Surgical intervention is performed with the ineffectiveness of conservative.