Causes and treatment of venous insufficiency of the lower extremities
Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs on statistics observed in 20-25 % of the population. Moreover, the number of patients in developed countries is significantly higher suffering from this disease in third world countries.
This "injustice" is due to the extremely simple. No matter how tedious either was hard physical labor, he still has one positive feature: it requires high physical activity. And the easiest way to earn CVI is to spend 8 hours standing or sitting.
What is venous insufficiency
Observed pathology in the majority of cases on the legs, due to the way movement of a person is in an upright position. None of the known mammals that move on four legs, does not suffer from this disease. Poor outflow of blood from the lower limbs - the result of the action of gravitational forces.
The mechanism of the blood flow following.
- Blood moves through the arteries, then to arterioles and capillaries: here the difficulties in movement does not occur as it moves under pressure and down the body.
- The blood through the veins is served with much less pressure, and gravity impede its movement. The movement is made with the help of venous valves, which are closed and opened as you follow the blood. 90% of her moves in the deep veins of 10% in the case of surface vascular.
- When the valve is tightly adjacent to the walls of the veins, the blood moves in only one direction - upwards. Very conducive to this process contraction of the muscles in the legs.
- If the vessel wall is stretched, the valve loses its elasticity, the blockage of veins by a blood clot or there is a combination of these factors, circulation changes: a part of the venous blood flowing in the opposite direction. All violations related to the outflow of blood in the lower extremities, attributed to chronic venous insufficiency.
Treatment of CVI is much more difficult than prevention. What is even sadder is to cure the disease it is impossible.
Classification of CVI
Varicose, abnormal veins congenital or traumatic, post-thrombotic status, and so on - all this belongs to the group of diseases associated with chronic failure.
The mechanism of formation of different - clot, damaged veins as a result of injury, expansion of the venous lumen. But the essence remains the same: a part of blood moves in the opposite direction, zastaivayas in the veins. The pressure in the vascular increases, they expand and peredelyvayut surrounding tissue.
Symptoms and their degree of severity depend on the stage of the disease.
According to the CEAP classification for 1999, we distinguish the following stages:
- 0 - palpation and visual inspection of changes is not detected. To this stage refers the state when observed spider veins, and even visible surface veins, but painful symptoms are lacking;
- 1 - in the evening or after exercise appear small swelling is visible traces of socks, the toes are not swollen. In the morning the swelling is not observed. There is the sense of heaviness in the legs, spider veins appear. Typically, such symptoms are ignored;
- 2 - there are strong arching pain, especially at night, swelling in the morning are not always held. The superficial veins swell, are painful on polerowanie. At this stage the victims try to do folk remedies that under certain conditions leads to good results;
- 3 - persistent swelling, skin pale and cold to the touch, pain in legs, frequent cramps;
- 4 - lack of blood circulation effect on the skin: formed areas with brown staining, a painful inflammation. Possible eczema: over the damaged vein, the skin becomes thinner, scratched, covered with spots. Needs urgent treatment;
- 5 - at this stage of the formation of trophic ulcers. On a plot with hyperpigmentation, the skin thickens, acquiring a specific pale surface. The seal is very vulnerable: the slightest damage can open ulcer. Possible complications - bleeding, thrombosis and so on;
- 6 - the sores increase in size, do not heal. If the stage is accompanied by the formation of thrombi, surgical treatment is necessary.
In addition to thrombotic and bleeding open the last two stages provoke tissue necrosis and pose a serious threat to life.
Causes of CVI
Propensity to chronic venous insufficiency, in fact, observed in any person. To some extent, the disease develops with age: the walls of the veins become thinner, and the valve cannot tightly close the lumen. So it makes sense to consider not the causes and factors contributing to the rapid development of the disease.
- Pregnancy, childbirth, hormonal drugs - these States are characterized by non-standard hormonal background, which causes thinning and weakening of the vessel walls. Therefore women suffer from CVI in 3 times more often than men.
- Weak physical activity is the factor that provides the disease 25% of the population in developed countries compared to 6-7% in the countriesin the third world. Blood flow stimulates the muscles of the lower extremities. Physical activity is folk remedies will not name, but it is the most effective way to prevent and combat venous insufficiency.
- Stay in the standing or sitting posture, both stationary, are not accompanied by muscle tension, which makes the work difficult veins. Sometimes treatment of the disease until stage 3 is to change jobs.
- Overweight - the more weight, the more pressure it exerts on the lower limbs, and, accordingly, more difficult to drain the blood. At any stage of CVI excess weight exacerbates the symptoms.
- Heavy physical work or the corresponding sports related to lift significant weights.
Indirect factors are all the habits and actions that contribute to the expansion of the venous vascular, such as hot tubs, sauna, steam bath.
Treatment of CVI
Typically, for medical help on stages, when curing has been not only the disease but also the associated complications. Moreover, swelling in the legs with the "standing" work are taken for granted and as symptoms of serious illness are not perceived.
Treatment is divided into surgical and conservative measures. The share of the first is not more than 10%.
The desired mode
Treatment of CVI up to stage 5 must be accompanied by a change in motor mode. To get rid of the disease, maintaining a higher body weight or avoiding physical activity, is impossible. To suspend the development of the pathology and to prevent the return after the treatment it is possible only by respecting a certain mode.
- Comfortable shoes - compression and high heels temporarily excluded.
- During the holidays it is recommended to place the elongated leg above hip level to provide the conditions for the outflow of blood. If possible, the night legs are on the cushion, with knees not bent.
- Recommended outdoor sports: fast walking, swimming, running, Cycling, aerobic dance. With the exception of pizzagate associated with heavy lifting and rynkovyi efforts - basketball, football, volleyball.
- An excellent result gives compression garments - stockings, tights, socks. Compared to elastic bandages, they are much more effective. Linen is much longer, much easier to put on, and most importantly - divided into certain classes of compression. This allows you to comply with the required pressure, and every time I find it empirically, as is the case with bandages.
- Pouring cold water is the simplest way to make the veins to shrink. You can take a cold showerit is possible to confine the pouring of the legs from the knee to the foot.
The advice to keep your feet warm should be treated with caution, as heating promotes the blood inflow, not outflow. Given the choice between the socks and the feet in open shoes, you should give preference to the latest decision.
Help at home
Treatment of folk remedies to effective methods to carry difficult: the disease is associated with changes in elasticity of the veins and venous valves and to influence it compresses hard.
Cold compresses will benefit and reduce pain symptoms. Hot compresses is invalid: Vienna warm can not.
Folk remedies to reduce blood viscosity. For example: decoction of hops or clover - glass before a meal, a decoction of horse chestnut - 1 tablespoon to 1 Cup of boiling water, collection of horse chestnut, birch and oak bark, horsetail and flowers of immortelle.
The methods and drugs used in the treatment, depending on the stage of the disease.
- 0-1 - treatment is more preventative and cosmetic in nature. Prescribers, increases the tone of veins Detralex, Antistax, ginkor Fort. Actively used sclerotherapy: the vein injected sclerosant, temporarily stopping blood flow in the area. Vienna thus narrowed and is no longer visible.
- 2-4 - phlebotonics added antihistamines, anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents - aspirin, dipiridamol. The drugs are selected for each particular patient. In any case, prolonged treatment takes at least 6 months. Definitely wearing compression underwear.
To prevent the development of eczema, an ulcer, drugs used in outdoor areas, which include corticosteroids - mesoderm, flucinar.
- 5-6 - treatment of trophic ulcers more difficult. This requires a medications, both local and General action. Treatment includes triple toilet ulcers with the use of special and General medicines - decoction of chamomile, for example.
Used with the ineffectiveness of conservative methods and when serious complications - thrombophlebitis, thrombosis. The volume of operational changes determined by injury.
- Phlebectomy - the actual removal of the enlarged segment of the vein. Blood thus is redirected to other vascular. As the majority of the superficial veins account for only 10% of the blood flow, redistribution of load, usually does not cause complications.
- The recovery valve of Vienna allows you to restore the vessel to working condition.
- Bypass surgery - Vienna is excluded from the systemblood flow, and venous blood is formed a bypass shunt.
CVI is directly related to the low mobility and stay in stationary positions. And if you completely avoid this disease is impossible, to reduce the symptoms to a minimum, and return to zero phase is possible.
We recommend you to read the material about how to improve circulation in the legs and avoid many diseases.