Treatment of thrombophlebitis of veins of the lower extremities
When venous blood vascular become inflamed, and can form a clot - so there is a deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities. Legs suffer the most, since blood tends to stagnate in the veins. When phlebothrombosis thrombus is fixed unsteadily, but the second stage of the disease and is called thrombophlebitis.
This disease refers to the extremely dangerous because the patient can occur two bad things: blood stasis and thrombus detachment with the subsequent transfer into the bloodstream. The consequences of these phenomena can be fatal to humans.
The causes of the disease
If we reduce causes of morbidity the three fundamental factors, we get the following:
- increased blood clotting;
- injury to the inner surface of blood vascular;
- the slow flow of blood.
Increased clotting - the main cause of the disease. The patient's condition lead to a change in this factor, but if clotting is higher than normal constantly, the chances of getting DVT are approaching a critical point. Thrombophlebitis can affect several deep veins of the lower extremities, since there is the factor that triggers the formation of a blood clot. Also platelet aggregation.
The disease does not develop out of the blue - its causes are seen in people belonging to certain risk groups. Deep vein thrombophlebitis may touch the lower limbs, if you:
- for a long time are in the supine position (broken leg, heart attack, postoperative recovery, air travel, travel by car);
- get cancer of the pancreas in the blood increases the content of the procoagulants that affects clotting);
- suffered a stroke (and subsequent paralysis of the limbs);
- pregnant or recently gave birth;
- wearing a Central venous catheter or pacemaker - these devices irritate the walls of blood vascular;
- suffered compound fractures (surgery on the joints or extensive abdominal surgery);
- taking hormones or birth control pills;
- obese or overweight;
- genetically predisposed to formation of blood clots and clotting disorders;
- your age exceeds 60.
Symptoms may vary depending on the type of affected veins (mesenteric or portal vein, retina). Symptoms in lesions of the legs can be explicit and implicit. Here they are:
- color of skin changes (lesions);
- slight edema observed in the feet;
- pain (periodic) calf muscles;
- the feeling of heat;
- heaviness in the legs.
Localization of thrombosis may also be different - lower leg, ankle, hip. Occasionally the disease develops without visible symptoms - this leads to extreme complication, and ultimately to sudden death.
If the veins become raised, tender, red, and sensitive - that's disturbing. And here is a list of symptoms that require urgent medical attention:
- strong venous pain;
- bloody cough;
- swelling of veins;
- shortness of breath.
Before you start the treatment of thrombophlebitis of lower extremities, it is necessary to conduct a competent diagnosis. A leading method for duplex scanning. If scanning does not give the desired results, used x-ray contrast venography. In comparison with ultrasound the efficiency of these methods is considered to be higher.
Consider all possible options for the diagnosis:
After diagnosing the disease the doctor should immediately begin treatment of thrombophlebitis, particularly in lesions of the lower extremities.
The severity of the disease is the key argument in the choice of inpatient or outpatient treatment. In emergency cases required surgical intervention, but with early diagnosis lack medicines and balanced diet.
When the diagnosis of "occlusive thrombosis" is assigned to conservative therapy. The patient is prescribed anticoagulants, which decrease clotting and reduce the likelihood of clot formation to a minimum. Therapy is based on the reception of heparin and its many derivatives. Make the heparin on their own not drug is used only in stationary conditions. The reason lies in the abundance of probable complications.
Now the most popular low molecular weight heparins. The development of these drugs has led to the fact that patients were often treated on an outpatient basis. You can purchase a disposable syringe with the heparin dose, and injected herself.
Russian doctors usually prescribe:
Some allow thrombophlebitis be treated as an outpatient with the proviso that the constant passage of a patient an ultrasound. The doctor should monitor the increased swelling or the appearance of new complaints of the patient.
Such diseases include embologenic thrombosis, struck the femurVienna.
Outpatient drug therapy
Before the appointment for outpatient treatment, the doctor repeatedly recheck all readings - the price of a mistake with the wrong vision of the situation high. Outpatient therapy appointed the following drugs:
- indirect anticoagulants (coumadin and warfarin in pill form);
- low molecular weight globulins.
The patient is put on outpatient treatment, constantly losing blood, undergoing ultrasound procedures and medical examinations, his condition carefully monitored. Usually positive dynamics is observed for the second scan, if this does not happen, doctors consider hospitalization of the patient. Late hospitalization can lead to cancer and then to death.
Practiced as a type of treatment called thrombolysis is a procedure of dissolution of thrombotic events. Thrombolysis does a vascular surgeon.
In the clogged vein injected a special catheter - this tube is injected into a solvent substance (thrombolitic). Side effect - the likelihood of bleeding, so this therapy is poorly widespread.
Severe thrombophlebitis can cause tissue necrosis - this process has the scientific name "venous trombectomy". If it came to floating formations, implanted in the vein cava filters. Implantation of such devices is also recommended for patients who are diagnosed with intolerance to blood thinners.
Inferior Vena cava - the key the main vessel supplying blood to the lower limbs, abdomen, pelvis, heart and lungs. If drug treatment does not bring results, implementation of the filter can be a decisive argument against thromboembolism.
There are other types of surgical intervention:
- The Fogarty Catheter. Poor fixation of the thrombus leads to the implantation of the probe in the vessel for about five days.
- Plication. Operated by Vena. Essence: the metal clip is sewn on the wall of the vessel.
- Thrombectomy. Intervening quickly, it is possible to completely eliminate the blood clot. Time is very limited, since the formation of thrombus must undergo less than a week. With the further development of education, the destruction of venous valves and walls will prevent to carry out the operation.
Note that conservative therapy is often combined with physical therapy. Exercise prescribed by a doctor after the pain syndrome subsides.
The best prevention of throm -the sedentary way of life. Exercise often walk in the fresh air. After the disease patient is prescribed:
- the compression garment;
- a complex of therapeutic exercises.
To reduce the risk of electric shock deep vein thrombophlebitis, we suggest to do the following:
- drink plenty of fluids (this will prevent dehydration of the body);
- to abandon the use of constricting clothes (especially in the waist area);
- regularly organize walks and stretch your leg;
- to wear compression underwear (important for risk groups);
- use medications (prescription) that inhibit clotting.
If the doctor has prescribed you coumadin, but you pass aspirin treatment, please inform. To take both drugs at the same time.
Thrombophlebitis developed in the superficial (subcutaneous) veins are not as dangerous as deep thrombosis. In the latter case, the risk of complications increases dramatically. Prepare yourself mentally for the next challenges:
- Pulmonary embolism. Cut off the blood clot blocks the artery leading to the lungs - this situation poses a serious threat to your health.
- Stroke/Heart attack. Relevant to people with congenital cardiac defects (PFO, the defect interventricular or interatrial septa).
- Swelling. Occurs not always.
- The varicose veins. The expansion provoked by the stagnation of blood flow.
- Blocked vein. Completely blocked blood flow will lead to sad consequences.
- The appearance of ulcers. The first symptom is discoloration of the skin. Upon detection of this condition, urgently go to the doctor.
Recent studies have shown that sudden change can trigger thrombosis. Participants of the marathon, after the race, having taken in the car and making the long car journey later we went to the doctor with the above symptoms.
In a moment of exhaustion blood pressure decreases and the blood becomes something like a "gel".
After the competition the doctors suggest some time to keep moving and drink plenty of water. Try departure for a day to be postponed.