Impaired venous outflow: causes, symptoms
Normal blood supply of organs and tissues is a prerequisite of vital activity of any living organism. Arterial blood carries to the cells oxygen and nutrition, venous - displays the decay products and synthesized by the cells of the substance. Accordingly, malfunctions of the circulatory system have very unpleasant consequences.
The violation of the venous outflow of the brain is the most serious disease in this group, as its definition and study very difficult.
The clinical picture of the disorders
The venous system is designed more complicated than the arterial, has a much greater length, and most importantly - the possibility of duplication. When blockage or damage to the veins and their functions temporarily, or even permanently, may be transferred to other vascular. This is one of the reasons why poor blood flow to the lower extremities, pelvis, brain is not a deadly threat in the first few hours.
Venous and arterial system.
The second "useful" feature is the separation of the veins in the superficial and deep. In any organ or body part - lower limbs and the upper cavity of the skull, the superficial veins collect blood in areas closest to the outer edge of the body, deep serve the body. When possible traumas and wounds first damaged veins, located closer to the surface - their share is about 10-20%. In this case, the function is passed their deep-lying veins, and blood circulation stops.
The same is observed in most diseases. The first "come under attack" superficial veins that, despite the severity of the damage, the body creates a certain leeway, allowing them to start treatment.
This mechanism is valid for the lower extremities and pelvic veins and the cranial cavity.
The venous system of the brain: the features
Superficial veins of the brain served by the cortex, deep white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, the walls of the ventricles and plexus of vascular. Blood is transported in the venous reservoirs of the sinuses. From the sinuses it gets to the jugular and vertebral veins and emissaries - entities inside the hollow bones of the skull.
Such an extensive and branched system illustrated by the high activity of the brain, an abundance of functions and the need to provide a very high level of nutrition. The brain is the main consumer of oxygen and glucose in the body.
But the violation of the venous outflow of the brain and today relates to the byway. This is due to the difficulties in the study. Conventional methodsto record blood flow, are characterized by low resolution, making impossible the assessment of hemodynamics.
Causes and symptoms of violations
Another challenge impeding treatment, are not typical symptoms of the disease. At times, venous insufficiency does not confirm the signs, and provoking his ailments.
- Malfunction of the heart, pulmonary insufficiency - symptoms due to heart failure blurred. To separate them is difficult. As a rule, headache, nausea, partial impairment of consciousness or state of arousal.
- Compression of the veins of the skull for tumors, brain edema, due to injury, and so forth - the signs there is a similar, but headaches are more pronounced.
- Vein occlusion - partial or full. Occurs as a result of inflammation of blood vascular, and on the basis of already available, for example, purulent otitis, inflammation of the paranasal sinuses and so on. The symptoms are the same for both reasons, therefore, to divide them is difficult.
Signs and severity of illness differ markedly and are associated with localization of the lesion.
Thrombosis of the superficial veins is recorded fever, headache, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. There may be paresis or paralysis of the lower limbs or upper. Moreover, the localization changes, as the process migrates from one venous trunk in the other.
The most common cause of thrombophlebitis of superficial veins are postpartum state. The signs may include inflammation of the cerebrospinal fluid, allowing you to assign the correct treatment.
- Obstruction of the deep veins is fraught with much more serious consequences. The symptoms point to the dysfunction of stem and subcortical structures. Sick almost all the time I was in a coma. Treatment is complex and lengthy.
- Signs of thrombosis of the sinuses - a sharp, severe headache, swelling of the subcutaneous tissue in the face and scalp. Increased temperature, possible changes in consciousness up to coma. Depending on which sinus is affected, pain symptoms are different, localized swelling in certain areas. If the process moves to the jugular or vertebral veins, the possible lesions of the nervous trunks.
Violations of the outflow of blood in the lower extremities
Varicose veins of the lower limbs is much more widespread. The fact that the outflow of blood here so difficult. First, the blood moves upward, that is, overcoming the attraction. Second, veins are located farthest from the heart, and thus blood pressure are minimal. The vascular of the lower extremities can be called "weak link" of the circulatory system.class="img-center">
- In the initial stage of disease of the lower extremities, there is a feeling of heaviness, especially in the late afternoon. Observed unexpressed swelling of the ankle. The skin form spider veins. Treatment here the most simple and reduced to sufficient physical activity.
- On 2 stage, the sense of gravity is much stronger, appear nagging pains affecting not only the ankle and calf, but the thigh. Strain veins can be assessed visually.
- Stage 3 - there are cramps in the lower extremities, especially at night. The swelling is pronounced. These indications show that the violation affected the deep veins.
- Stage 4 - in addition to the swelling and protruding veins appears eczema. Pain significant.
- On 5 and 6 stages are formed healing and non-healing trophic ulcers of the lower extremities.
In acute failure described symptoms are progressing very quickly. And if during the chronic treatment includes medicines, in acute or late stages of chronic are even offered surgery.
Violation of blood flow in the pelvic area
Disease, excluding trauma, inherent in the female half of humanity, as the physiological characteristics of women - the uterus, ovaries, in fact, determine the structure of the vascular system in the pelvis.
Today the main cause of the disease is considered a connective tissue dysplasia - change in the synthesis of collagen. 70% of DST is registered in women.
Consider 2 options for varicose pelvic area, although this division is rather conditional.
- Varicose veins of vulva and perineum - symptoms are similar to symptoms of premenstrual syndrome: hypersensitivity, pain in perineum, pain during exercise. In the later stages the pain stronger bleeding. Treatment however no different from the standard adopted, for example, when varicose veins of the lower extremities.
- Venous congestion in the pelvic area - here the reason is the inadequate functionality of the venous valves. In the ovarian veins flow is impeded, which leads to stagnation of blood. Signs include pain and a feeling of heaviness in the groin, problems with urination and severe pain during sexual intercourse, which often leads to the formation of the fear of sex. Treatment is often carried out in parallel with the consultations of a psychologist, as this fear is very stable.
The disruption of blood flow leads to serious losses. Both forms of the disease are very insidious and if varicose changes of the lower extremities just to be diagnosed, in other cases not so simple. Notto ignore the signs of such ailments and you need to immediately seek the advice of.