In aneurysm of the thoracic aorta
The aorta is the largest vessel of the human body: its diameter is 30 mm. its Main function is the supply of blood, rich in oxygen, so the wall of the aorta constantly carry significant loads created by the blood flow.
To withstand the pressure of the blood allows strong enough in the aortic wall. However, if under the influence of certain diseases or because of congenital characteristics of the wall weaken, the blood collects in different parts of the vessel, forming protrusions. So developing an aortic aneurysm is a severe pathology, which can lead to many complications up to death.
A bag of trouble
The bulging area of the aorta in the abdominal or chest cavity looks like a vascular sack or resemble a spindle, but whatever kind it may have, it is always a potential source of serious danger.
A comparison of normal aorta and aneurysm
The danger of an aneurysm is developed in the high likelihood of sudden rupture and as a result, massive bleeding, to stop which is almost impossible: people die in a matter of minutes before the arrival of the brigades of health workers.
Aneurysm can be congenital or acquired with age. Also distinguish between true and false aneurysms.
A true aortic aneurysm involves all layers of the vessel walls, however, the greatest destruction of the exposed fibers of the middle shell. Remnants of fibrous tissue is severely stretched, resulting in an increase of the lumen of the vessel. As the progression of pathology increases the risk of vascular rupture of the bag.
A true aneurysm is formed in the abdominal or thoracic cavity on the background of the perennial flow of the following diseases:
- Atherosclerosis vascular of the heart and other organs
- Inflammation of the aorta - aorta due to infection or the development of autoimmune processes
Slightly different is the case with a false aneurysm. It occurs as a result of injuries of the abdomen, the chest, resulting in rupture of the middle layers of the wall of individual sections of the aorta. In this case also the weakness of the vascular wall and the formation of aneurysmal SAC. Interestingly, an aneurysm can develop after a trauma years and diagnosed after 10-20 years, when all other effects have long experienced.
If the result of trauma or prolonged hypertension intimal tear occurs in the ascending or descending departments, developsa special form of pathology - an aortic dissection.
A little anatomy
The aorta consists of three divisions - the ascending, descending and arch. From the bottom division to the rear of the pulmonary trunk, branch coronary artery of the heart. The downward Department consists of the thoracic and abdominal areas, partial aortic opening of the diaphragm.
From the thoracic and abdominal aorta depart artery - intercostal, esophageal, pericardiac, celiac trunk, renal and others.
Aneurysms develop in the abdominal or thoracic aorta, for which he received appropriate names.
The ventral division is the most likely to develop aneurysms, and every tenth patient when examination revealed multiple lesions, the largest vessel in the body. Abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs in the region of the renal arteries.
Most often, the disease affects elderly men over the age of 50, who have for many years developed hypertension or heart disease. Compounding the situation, genetic predisposition, and tobacco addiction, which negatively affects the tone and condition of the vascular walls.
Not detected in time, an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta progressing - in the year of its diameter increases by about half a centimeter. If the time pathology is not detected and do not spend adequate treatment, the risk of rupture of the walls of the aneurysm is almost inevitable.
A common feature of aneurysmal lesions of the vascular - is the lack of pronounced symptoms for many years. Only in the later stages of the disease, patients may present complaints of oppressive pain in those places where an aneurysm was formed.
The reason is that wibehouse the portion of the aorta compresses the adjacent organs and disrupts blood circulation in them which can cause a sensation of pressure and pain of varying intensity.
How to spot an abdominal aortic aneurysm? It all depends on the size of the aneurysmal sack: if it is small, no symptoms at all. When an aneurysm enlarges very considerably, patients are troubled by dull pain in the abdomen and lower back what these people seek medical attention.
Aortic aneurysm of an abdominal Department is usually discovered accidentally - for example, when examining hypertensive disease or heart disease.
A normal medical examination without the use of hardware diagnostic methods detects only large enoughneoplasms: their specialist discovers in the epigastric region. Particularly well palpated aneurysm of the lean patients.
Well as to assess the size and growth of tumors used radiographic and ultrasonic methods, which allow to accurately determine the location of the aneurysm, thickness of their walls, presence of blood clots.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm carries a high probability of sudden rupture and thrombosis of the affected portion of the vessel. Such an outcome depends on a number of factors:
- The speed of growth of the aneurysm
- The degree of atherosclerotic lesions of blood vascular, and heart
The normal diameter of the lumen of the aorta is about 30 mm, however, a growing aneurysm may reach an impressive size - six inches or more. The greater the size, the more likely the sudden rupture of the vessel in the place of vbuhanie: for example, a six-centimeter-aneurysm ruptures in half of the cases.
In aneurysm of the thoracic aorta
An aneurysm formed in the thoracic part of the aorta, has the appearance of a spindle-shaped thickening and is the place of origin of the left subclavian artery. The main cause of vbuhanie - the same atherosclerosis. Also the reasons for the development of this type of disease can be attributed to hypertension and heart disease.
The intensity of the symptoms of the disease is influenced by the size of aneurysm small aortic vbuhanie did not bother, so the people can for many years not celebrating any symptoms.
When the thoracic aneurysm significantly increases in size and begins to compress the surrounding organs, patients have the relevant experience:
- Cough, hoarseness (at a pressure of tumors on the nerve endings of the larynx)
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain diffuse nature
- Impaired swallowing (if the aneurysm has formed near the esophagus)
- Pulsation in the chest area
There are also specific symptoms that appear when the compression of nerves in the autonomic nervous system: it is called Horner's syndrome.
Patients with the above syndrome is well marked constricted pupil, half-closed eyelids, marked sweating.
Among people at higher risk of developing the disease include:
- Older patients (over 50 years) with existing heart disease, blood vascular
- Those who have high rates of harmful cholesterol
- Fat people
- Patients whose family history was the occurrence of aneurysm
Aortic aneurysm in the thoracic spine detected byradiographic and ULTRASONIC methods of research, as well as on MRI. Experts estimate the condition of the walls of the aneurysm, its size, decide on the appropriateness of surgical intervention.
If there is a gap
A ruptured aneurysm is a life-threatening condition: very, very few people are lucky in time to get medical help and survive after the vessel suddenly burst.
The symptoms of aneurysm rupture and their intensity depend on the localization. Most often the break occurs in the retroperitoneal space and free abdominal cavity. Rarely in the inferior Vena cava and intestine.
A rare form of aortic rupture and hemorrhage include vascular accident in the bladder, the duodenum.
If an aortic aneurysm ruptures into the abdominal cavity, the symptoms resemble the symptoms of acute abdominal pain, radiating to the loins, paleness and nausea. Because the bleeding occurs in moderate amounts (about 200 ml), the peritoneal phenomena are moderate. Only 20 percent of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm there is a collapse with loss of consciousness. They have just a short time after death occurs.
If the break occurs in the retroperitoneal space, abdominal syndrome is an extremely strong, painful character: pain in the abdomen and lower back are not cropped any anesthetics.
Hemorrhage in the direction of the pelvic organs is characterized by pain radiating to the thigh, groin and perineum. If a hematoma is formed in the upper part of the retroperitoneal space, significant pain radiating to the region of the heart.
Blood in the retroperitoneal space occurs relatively slowly, so the body has time to include their compensatory mechanisms.
The most formidable version of the current rupture of aortic aneurysms is intra-abdominal vascular catastrophe: the syndrome of blood loss increases very rapidly, there hemorrhagic shock.
Picture of the intraperitoneal rupture is characterized by a swollen abdomen, filiform pulse and symptom Shchetkina-Blumberg. Percussion in the abdomen is determined by the free liquid.
Any diagnostic measures and attempts to provide emergency surgical care here pointless: death is coming inevitably, a few minutes later.
Pills or surgery?
The basic rule which guides professionals in the choice of tactics of treatment of the disease, the aneurysms formed and its pressure on adjacent organs.
Has a certain value and sex of patients.
Are subject to removal of already formed aneurysm of large size over 5.5 cm is Also recommended to remove a small vbuhanie, which tend to the rapid growth of such aneurysms increase in size by 0.5 cm in six months. Has a value and compression by aneurysm of the internal organs that causes symptoms.
Men remove large tumors reached 5.5 cm or above, while women are shown surgical treatment and smaller size of the aneurysm.
The question of whether the operation is solved taking into account the severity of comorbidities and the risk of complications in the patients bodies.
In some cases, it is only medical treatment of aortic aneurysm. It is recommended for its small size and slow growth.
Such patients are assigned to drugs to control of blood pressure and cholesterol, to slow the course of atherosclerosis and heart.
However, the effect of drug therapy is not proven, but it significantly improves the quality of life of people with aneurysmal tumors in the aorta.
Lifestyle and diet
Aortic aneurysm - diseases directly related to lifestyle and nutrition of patients. People abusing fatty, spicy and fried food and strong drinks and tobacco, increased levels of harmful cholesterol, so treatment of the disease no revision of personal habits and tastes is impossible.
If the aneurysm already diagnosed, to slow its growth must be immediately go on a healthy diet, completely eliminating from your system power:
- Fast food
- Fried and fatty foods
You also need to give up Smoking, or at least substantially reduce cigarettes smoked per day.
Menu patients should be lots of vegetables and fruits, and fatty fish (salmon, salmon) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6.
For the prevention of atherosclerosis and heart as the main reasons for the development of aneurysms, patients necessary all - natural drinks- fruit drinks, fruit drinks, teas with herbs.
Of course, when aneurysmal tumor has already formed, the question of his further treatment should be decided only by specialists. However, the prevention of vascular pathologies and possible disasters - a task doable by the patients.
In folk medicine, there are many proven ways of treatment of hypertension and heart disease, which can be quite effective with prolonged and regular use.
Herbalists recommend a daily intake of decoctions of such herbs and berries:
- Siberian elder
- Berries of hawthorn
Caring about the strength and elasticity of their blood vascular and leading a healthy lifestyle since childhood, can be guaranteed to avoid most of the problems with vascular, among them - and aneurysmal lesions of the aorta.
Similar symptoms has the disease - Leriche's Syndrome.