Sinus arrhythmia of the heart
The human heart never beats with the same rhythm: it changes depending on various loads and conditions, therefore, under certain circumstances, the acceleration or slowing of heart rhythm poses no danger and cannot be considered a disease.
Noteworthy is the arrhythmia only in cases, when threatening a person's life and is associated with gross violations in the work of the main body.
Sinus arrhythmia of the heart (it is more correct to call it simply as sinus arrhythmia, because it is characteristic only of the heart) - a diagnosis that always needs clarification from the reasons identified in the survey depends on further tactics of the expert - let the patient with the world, restricting only the General recommendations, or to offer treatment.
The sinuses is not only the geometry
Sinoatrial node - the part of the cardiac conduction system, which generates pulses that provide a rhythmic reduce ventricular and atrial. The rhythm can change depending on which command gives the host adrenergic receptors and receptors belonging to the parasympathetic nervous system.
It looks like this: if the physical or psychoemotional load, heart rate quickens, and when its decline begins to slow down. At rest in healthy people, it ranges from 60 to 80 beats per minute.
It is interesting that women's heart beats faster than men, but babies and infants are the real "Champions" in the number of heart beats per minute: their rhythm increased to 180 beats.
The heart rate can not only increase, but also decline: for example, the physiological reduction alone is often observed in professional athletes and dancers - that is, those who constantly carries a very substantial load. Their heart by slowing the rhythm of trying to resist rapid wear.
So what is sinus arrhythmia? This is the General name of the reduction or increase of heart rate in rest. If the number of heart rate less than 60 beats/min, it is called sinus bradycardia, and if it exceeds 100 beats per minute, the experts called it sinus tachycardia.
How it manifests itself
Sinus tachycardia in which the heart rhythm is strongly accelerated, manifests itself in the following senses:
- Chest pain;
- Feeling that the heart is "popping up";
When measuring the pulse and listening with a stethoscope the heart specialist noted a significant increase in the number of strikes.
Sinus bradycardia, on the contrary, is characterized by a noticeable slowing of the pulse when the time interval between beats becomes longer. Clinically this form of sinus arrhythmia is manifested by the following features:
- Pain in the region of the heart;
- Shortness of breath.
However, most often bradycardia is quite a long time does not manifest itself in a deterioration of the General condition: people with a slow heart rate may not even suspect that their heart is beating is not quite as it should be.
With whom and why it happens
In fact, heart rhythm disorders occur at any age, but most often sinus arrhythmia is diagnosed in children and in older children.
Occurring in childhood arrhythmias are primarily connected with the immaturity of the nervous system, which gives incorrect command the sinus node, as well as with hormonal fluctuations, inevitable in adolescence.
In older people, a sinus node itself is weak, and existing diseases of the cardiovascular system only worsen the picture.
Transient sinus arrhythmia may occur during acute infectious diseases (influenza, hepatitis, pneumonia), during and after surgery and pass after treatment caused their illness.
And tachycardia, and bradycardia is often the result of taking certain drugs to control high or correct low blood pressure or of funds designated for the treatment of various cardiopathology.
We can not say about addiction and abuse of some foods and beverages. Smoking, excessive consumption of coffee and caffeinated beverages cause persistent tachycardia. It also occurs in a state of hangover when taking amphetamine, cocaine and ephedrine. Often palpitations and is noted among Allergy sufferers in the period of acute food, drug or seasonal allergies.
Severe arrhythmia - what does this mean?
Arrhythmia, whether deceleration or acceleration of heart rate, has a different intensity: experts divide it into moderate and pronounced.
Rhythm disorders of a moderate nature do not have any symptoms, and therefore usually neither children nor adults do not show complaints.
Pronounced sinus arrhythmia occur in advanced diseases of the heart and blood vascular, and in severe alcohol, drug and narcotic poisoning. Her symptoms are pain in the heart on the left or behind the sternum, the blood circulation in the brain, fainting.
This condition requires an immediate call to the professionals, hospitalization fordetermine the causes and treatment of diseases that cause bouts of irregular heart rhythm.
Heart rhythm disturbances in childhood and adolescence is one of the most common reasons for visiting a cardiologist and putting on dispensary registration with further observation.
However, we must consider age-related physiological peculiarities of child's organism: the fact that adults can be unequivocally regarded as an attack of tachycardia, the child may be the complete norm.
So, the normal number of heartbeats in children of different age is:
- 1-2 days — 123-159 beats/min;
- 3-6 days 129-166 BPM;
- 1-3 week 107-182 BPM;
- 1-2 months — 121-179 beats/min;
- 3-5 months — 106-186 beats/min;
- 6-11 months — 109-169 BPM;
- 1-2 years — 89-150 beats/min;
- 3-4 years 73-137 beats/min;
- 5-7 years 65-133 beats/min;
- 8-11 years — 62-130 beats/min;
- 12-15 years — 60-119 beats/min.
In addition, the development and growth of internal organs in children is uneven, so the process may temporarily have a negative impact on the respiratory system, making them difficult to work. For this reason, sinus arrhythmia in healthy children are called respiratory. It is absolutely not dangerous and only requires reducing physical and emotional stress.
Why doctors pay so much attention to children's arrhythmia? The problem is that children (especially preschoolers) of heart rhythm disturbances are not always associated with growth and up to a certain point sometimes occur without apparent symptoms, but the ending can be extremely serious, with the development of severe heart failure or sudden cardiac death.
However, sinus arrhythmia in a child still has its manifestations that should be clearly alert parents and get them to show a son or daughter experts:
- The tremors in my chest, felt like skipped heart beats;
- Sudden increase (decrease) palpitations;
- Shortness of breath;
- Chest pain;
Examination by a specialist can identify both age-related and not representing a danger the causes of the complaints and serious deviations in the body:
- Pathology of the myocardium;
- Mitral valve prolapse;
- Congestive heart failure.
Sinus arrhythmia in children is often accompanied by diabetes, hyperthyroidism, anemia, deficiency of potassium, calcium and magnesium in the body caused by taking certain medications to treat existing heart disease: in these cases, there is tachycardia (rapid heart rate).
Bradycardia (slowing heart rate) may be a sign of congenital heart defects and heart disease, hypothyroidism, reduced levels of blood sugar can occur during sleep for apnea.
In other words, whatever it was called sinus arrhythmia in children, it needs to be closely monitored by professionals and parents compliance with all recommendations and treatment regimens.
Sinus tachycardia does not require treatment and resolves on its own as the child gets older, when stabiliziruemost his hormones, and finally Matures the nervous system. Of course, this encouraging forecast is possible only in the absence of concomitant cardiovascular, endocrine and cardiac pathologies: that is, only in healthy children.
To normalize heart rhythm and can be simple organized lifestyle and nutrition: it is necessary to exclude alcohol and caffeinated drinks, stop Smoking and reduce load. However, it is also true only for fairly healthy people.
If the arrhythmia is a side effect of taking cardiac, antihypertensive or hormonal drugs, the question of their withdrawal or dose adjustment must be discussed with your doctor only.
How to be pregnant?
Pregnancy is a long period of time during which women can detect various health problems.
Heart rhythm disorders occur quite often, because the body is undergoing major hormonal adjustment. In addition, pregnant women have physiologically increased blood volume, and growing belly squeezes internal organs, causing shortness of breath, complaints of dizziness and the feeling of "jumping out" of the heart. In healthy women, these violations disappear after childbirth.
Another thing, if during pregnancy there has been a marked sinus arrhythmia with complaints of pain in the heart, and especially with the fainting. Here the doctor may suspect a variety of different health problems, which will require serious treatment, since they represent a threat to the health of the mother and life of fetus.
Sinus arrhythmia in pregnant women - an occasion for a detailed examination, which can reveal such possible causes:
- Gestosis (nephropathy of pregnancy);
- Heart disease;
- Problems with the thyroid gland;
- Diabetes mellitus;
- Diseases of the respiratory system;
- Intoxication is harmful for fetus and mother substances;
- Vitamin deficiency and lack of potassium, calcium and magnesium.
In these cases, specialists prescribe therapeuticcourses aimed at cure or improve flow caused by arrhythmia of the disease. If a woman is healthy, but it there are disruptions of the heart rhythm, the treatment is not required: the specialist may just recommend rest, adequate sleep and a minimum of unpleasant emotions.
How to identify an arrhythmia
To distinguish benign sinus arrhythmia from the less favorable of its forms, specialists prescribe such studies:
Laboratory tests provide an opportunity to identify the condition of the kidneys, liver, thyroid gland, to exclude or confirm the intoxication of drugs, alcohol, other harmful substances.
Instrumental studies include ECG 12-lead ECG, Holter monitoring, echocardiography, chest x-ray.
Based on these data, the conclusion about whether or not to treat: the fact that it requires not the arrhythmia, and other diseases that can cause.
Any perceived violations of heart rhythm in children and adults have completely explored because they may be the first manifestation of serious heart, vascular and endocrine pathologies.