Bypass surgery of the heart vessels
Narrowing of coronary vascular caused by atherosclerosis and other diseases of the heart, is always a serious problem: a direct consequence of this phenomenon becomes ischemic disease in which areas of the heart muscle experiencing hypoxia.
When ischemia affects large areas, health of the sick person steadily deteriorating: he complains of severe chest pain, weakness, shortness of breath - typical symptoms of angina.
To help such patients can bypass vascular of the heart - an operation designed to completely restore blood flow to bypass the narrowing.
What's the point?
The narrowed vessel passes the minimum amount of blood needed by the heart for normal supply of oxygen. To restore circulation, the surgeon creates a backup of blood flow by anastomosis - plus vessel, which is sewn into the aorta and coronary artery.
Where and what is the anastomosis? Previously used for this segment of vein taken from the patient under the skin of the thigh, but later began to apply portions of arteries taken from the forearm or the chest wall. Explains the choice in favour of the arteries is very simple: they are stronger and last longer veins.
Depending on the origin of the portion of the vessel for sewing, distinguish between these types of bypass surgery:
- Autovenous (if taken cut femoral vein);
- Autoarterial (if taken the length of the artery from the forearm);
- Mammarocoronary (if using a segment of mammary artery).
Anastomoses may even be a few: it all depends on the number of affected areas.
The result of the operation is significant improvement in the quality and duration of life of patients: in the period of 9-10 years is approximately 90 percent built-in areas is quite good serve and regularly deliver blood and oxygen to the heart muscle.
However, anastomoses, taken from the veins of the thigh, the figure is worse: only 60-65% of the operated patients during the decade do not complain about the new strokes.
Heart bypass surgery involves a relatively short recovery time: it takes about six months.
How it's done: the old and new methods
There are two options for surgical treatment of narrowing of the coronary vascular on a stopped and on a beating heart. The first operation for coronary artery bypass grafting was performed only on the stopped heart, which chest was opened to provide access to the heart and blood vascular.
The blood at the time of surgery was assigned to a specialapparatus where it is subjected to oxygen enrichment and then returned back into the vascular system of the heart. However, this surgery was very traumatic for patients, increased duration of hospital stay and rehabilitation period, as it took a long time for the complete fusion of the chipped bone of the sternum.
- Serious condition of the patient at the time of hospitalization;
- Multiple stenoses of the vascular - including small;
- Post-stroke condition (the first weeks and months after a brain haemorrhage);
- Severe deficiency of contractility of the left ventricle;
- Malignant hypertension.
- Diabetes in decompensated form.
Important: recently, when there was a gentle technique of coronary artery bypass grafting, acute THEM more is not a contraindication to the operation.
The rehabilitation period is very important period of time for which there is not only recovering after the operation, but also lays the Foundation for further normalization of the patients ' condition.
The main goal of the recovery period the inhibition of the atherosclerotic process, which was and remains the main culprit in the development of most diseases of the heart, requiring all kinds of plastic surgeries on coronary vascular.
The basis of rehabilitation is the diet system of nutrition of patients, which involves eating only low-fat or with low fat products, food and drinks.
Lots of vegetables and fruits, vegetable greens, cereal porridge and soups, fruit and vegetable juices, fruit drinks, fruit drinks, sea fish, vegetable oils - here is a sample menu for many years for patients undergoing surgery coronary artery bypass grafting.
Fried, spicy, fatty, smoked, canned meat and fish is taboo. Eggs, butter, other animal fats, sausages, fatty dairy products should also be completely excluded.
Strong tea and coffee drinks, can cause a rise in blood pressure, so they need to replace green tea, chicory coffee, pure water.
It is also forbidden any alcohol, you must end the relationship with tobacco - alcohol and cigarettes raise blood pressure and contribute to the further development of atherosclerosis.
A strict diet is necessary not only in order to inhibit the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in blood vascular, but also for the weight loss, because obesity creates a greater load on the vascular and heart.
Salt is the enemyvascular number one: fans of salty foods myself at risk of pressure surges due to fluid retention in the body, and is a direct route to strokes and heart attacks. The menu of patients after bypass surgery must be a minimum of salt, it is useful to organize and salt-free days to excrete the excess water and stabilize blood pressure to normal numbers.
Physical and emotional stress must be strictly controlled, avoiding unnecessary stress: lessons with instructors, physiotherapists and psychologists will help get rid of insomnia, depression, irritability - a common phenomena that occurs after coronary artery bypass surgery.
Control of blood pressure, course and life receiving prescribed medications, regular examinations, centres in specialized neurological and cardiac sanatoriums, mineral water treatment - these are the required measures that will help restore the health and prolong the period of failure-free operation of the shunt.
Even the most successful bypass surgery does not guarantee full health and long life, especially if you don't diet and don't get treatment. Therefore it is better to take care of his heart in his youth: not to acquire bad habits, not gluttonize, to monitor the weight and not to forget the reasonable loads - then it will last for many years, and your health will remain strong.