Cardialgia: description of symptoms of the disease and its treatment
It is known that heart disease takes a leading place among causes of death. This causes the special attention of doctors and patients to cardiovascular dysfunction. However, according to the research, almost half of cardiac patients revealed no organic lesions of the heart.
Common reason for a trip to the doctor is a functional cardialgia — the manifestation of various deviations and processes, accompanied by discomfort in the chest. In some cases, this condition does not threaten life, but requires mandatory testing.
Causes of cardialgia
Until the final diagnosis, all pain symptoms on the left side of the chest are considered to be functional cardialgia. The above-stated pathology may be associated with heart disease, or be the consequence of dysfunction of other body.
- Myocardial infarction.
- Dishormonal cardiomyopathy. Occurs in puberty development in pathological disorders in thyroid gland during hormone therapy.
- Cardiac hypertrophy — overgrowth of the heart muscle is influenced by high blood pressure, to engage in professional sports, heavy physical work.
- Myocarditis — inflammation in the muscular structure of the heart. The reason for this are bacterial and viral infections.
- Dysfunction of the pericardium or endocardium.
- Mitral valve prolapse is a defect of the valve leaflets, for which reason part of the blood flows back into the atrium.
- Cardialgia associated with abnormalities in the heart and blood vascular, and requires emergency treatment.
Neurocirculatory dystonia (NDCs). Is formed if the unbalanced work of the various departments of the CNS. Pain behind the breastbone accompanied by respiratory disorders, sweating, dizziness. People with NDCs anxious, hypochondriac, mentally unstable, and gets tired quickly.
The pain start after a strong nervous shock or physical overload. The taking nitroglycerin has no effect, as the attack is not associated with vasoconstriction. The disease affects young people under 35 years.
Depression and anxiety. Violation of the functions of the cerebral cortex cause pain in the heart, irregular rhythm, fear of death.
These patients often formed psychogenic cardialgia (cardiovirus), the development of which contribute to nervous breakdowns, difficulties in adaptation, intractable problems.
Wellness anxiety causes a person to go to doctors, to agree to multiple examinations. The fact that there are no abnormalitiesI can not find, does not calm the patient, and suggests an incurable disease. Developing cardiophobia — fear of a heart attack, stop or a broken heart.
Cervical-brachial syndrome. Besides pain in the left part of the chest, characterized by a decrease in blood pressure on the left hand, lowered body temperature, swelling of the hands. The reason is the compression of the subclavian vascular and nerve endings. Pain syndrome appears when carrying heavy loads or lifting hands above your head.
Low back pain (lesion of the intervertebral cartilage) or herniation (protrusion) of the intervertebral disc. Chest pain often appears in the night, with a reflex body position (when the hands are reserved or laid up over the head). Nerve fibers in this position are compressed, and prolonged stationary position further exacerbates the situation.
This includes the so-called vertebrogenic cardialgia is a consequence of degenerative disorders in the thoracic part of the spine. Severe pain in the heart occurs when turning the head or body, when you breath, cough, flick of the wrist. Such violations should immediately go to a podiatrist.
Shingles, thoracalgia (intercostal neuralgia), neurinoma of spinal nerves. In these diseases the chest pain may be intense and last several days. It can't ease even powerful drugs like morphine. This fact facilitates the diagnosis.
Inflammation of the mediastinum (anatomic space between the lungs) with the compression of nerve endings.
Exhaustion, protein deficiency, alcoholism. Here are the symptoms of cardialgia are associated with metabolic disorders.
Gastric ulcer, diaphragmatic hernia, esophagitis. The pain symptoms disappear after getting up or taking antacid drugs (antacids).
Tracheitis, bronchitis, pulmonary hypertension, pleurisy, lung cancer.
Pregnancy, childbirth, menopause in women.
High standing diaphragm with obesity.
Rapid growth in children, violation of the nervous regulation in adolescents.
With all these conditions there are no visible organic disorders of the heart and coronary vascular. For cardialgia in these benign cases, the vital prognosis is good.
The main clinical manifestations
Patients with cardialgia observed multiple complaints and symptoms, as the process involved hypothalamic structures responsible for the constancy of the internal environment. The diverse nature of pain — shooting, aching, crushing, stabbing, cutting. The pain may be constant and short, in the form of a cross.
During an attack are the following phenomena:
- Tachycardia or Vice versa, bradycardia.
- Hand tremors, sweaty palms.
- Spasm of the Airways, lack of oxygen, fear of death.
- Difficulty swallowing, particularly in older obese people with a short neck syndrome (Barrier-LEU).
- "Feeling heart" is a vivid symptom of psychogenic cardialgia. Employees not previously represented, where the heart starts "exactly" to feel its location and even the size. Marked painful or distressing sensation, accompanied by causeless weakness and depressed mood.
- Irradiation of pain in the left hand, shoulder, under the shoulder, axillary region.
- Severe pain skin (with simpatoliticescoe cardialgia).
- The weight on the left under the ribs, belching, nausea and vomiting, if the cardiac pain associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Interscapular pain, numbness, tingling, decreased sensitivity of the hands and feet — in diseases of the spine.
- Fainting, hot flashes, sense of heart — for hormonal deviations.
- Cough, fever, weakness, stiffness in the chest on the affected side in pulmonary diseases.
For neurogenic cardialgia characterized by a sense of suffocation, heaviness in heart, pins and needles. Feeling of compression in chest causes patients to periodically take deep breaths, often with a groan that clearly indicates the nature of the psychosomatic process.
Patient cardioneurosis often behaves inappropriately to your condition. For people is characteristic restlessness, anxiety, obsessive fear of death, physical activity (for a patient with angina is not typical, any movement only intensifies the pain). The evaluation of patients with cardiophobia abnormalities in the heart can not find.
First, the physician collects history (information about the patient and his illness), detailed questioning of the patient about the duration of the disease, the nature and duration of the pain. It turns out the presence of chronic and hereditary diseases, trauma to the chest, work with chemically active substances.
It is important to distinguish between functional disorder of serious diseases. For example, differential diagnosis of cardialgia includes test taking nitrates. If chest pain is not associated with angina, nitroglycerin will not be able to remove it.
The physical examination determine the color of the skin, skin rash and swelling. Listen to the patient measure heart rate and blood pressure. Next, the doctor prescribes a set of laboratory and hardware research:
Analysis of blood and urine to exclude (or confirm) the possible inflammatory processes in the body.
Biochemical and immunological study of blood. For determining the number antimyocardial antibodies (compounds that can destroy the heart muscle), hormones and the amount of C-reactive protein (substances, the amount of which increases with inflammation).
Chest x-ray showing the internal organs, the existence of the tumor, pathological changes of bone structures and lung tissue.
Electrocardiography (ECG) to determine the arrhythmia, extrasystoles, overload of the heart.
Echocardiography (EchoCG). During the study evaluates the anatomical heart chambers, the thickness of the muscular walls, the presence of fluid content in the pericardium, condition of the endocardium.
The complex of diagnostic measures to determine the cause of cardialgia. After that, the doctor refers the patient to a specialist, which requires another examination.
For example, the neurologist will prescribe an MRI of the spine, a gastroenterologist FGS stomach.
The treatment is carried out after identifying the main causes of pain in the heart. The patient is kept under observation by specialists — cardiologist, endocrinologist, psychotherapist. It depends on abnormality of some organ connected cardialgia. For the relief of pain are assigned analgesics.
With neurocirculatory dystonia requires a change of lifestyle. It is necessary to eliminate all stressful situations — driving, family quarrels, nervous overload at work.
Doctors prescribe the patient a long rest, deep sleep, moderate physical activity. We recommend taking vitamins and sedatives — Valerian, Propranolol, Verapamil, drops of Zelenin.
Vertebrogenic cardialgia treated with manual therapy, intraosseous blockades, painkillers (Diclofenac). Manifestations of herpes zoster relieve ultraviolet radiation, a local treatment of the rash, antiviral drugs.
In some cases, helps psychotherapy. The implementation of specialist advice leads to a significant decrease in panic attacks, shortness of breath, pain behind the breastbone.
Assigned to various restorative procedures:
- Balneotherapy, physiotherapy;
- Electrophoresis and electrosleep;
- Reception adaptogens — ginseng, Schizandra, Rhodiola rosea.
In conclusion. Patients with functional cardialgia tend to self. They take a large amount of heart medication, more degradingtheir condition. The only possibility to cope with the disease, early treatment to the therapist. The doctor will do an exam and be referred to a specialist who will take all measures to cure the patient.