Myocardial infarction: how to avoid who are at risk most of all
Myocardial infarction - a severe and often tragic end of the many years diseases of the heart and blood vascular, aggravated by stress, poor diet and bad habits.
The situation is compounded by the fact that a heart attack has been steadily getting younger: it was the lot of the elderly, and now in the cardiology hospitals thirty antarktiki no one is surprised.
How to develop and what is this serious illness, what is the prevention of myocardial infarction? And talk about this.
“Infarctus” in Latin means "filled, stuffed". What kind of filling is it? It is a clot or atherosclerotic plaque, accidentally detached from the wall of a vessel zakupivlyu the lumen of the coronary artery.
In the place of the blockage of blood circulation occurs and hypoxia, which killed the cells of the myocardium - cardiomyocytes. Massive cell death causes formation of necrotic sites of cardiac tissue. The larger these areas, the more severe the myocardial infarction and neblagopryatnye its prognosis.
Where are the blood clots and plaque
A thrombus is a blood clot formed because of condensation (hypercoagulability) of the blood. Blood clots in turn, may occur on the background of many diseases, taking a number of medications, dehydration, restricted mobility during long trips in the car or air travel.
A thrombus attached to the injured vessel wall, and, breaking away from her at any moment, he can start his fatal journey to the heart.
About the same behave of atherosclerotic plaque, due to rupture or superficial ulceration which developing myocardial infarction more often.
The formation of atherosclerotic plaques - a direct result of poor diet with a predominance of fatty, fried food, alcohol, fast food. Its role is played by Smoking, causing permanent spasm of the blood vascular and chronic poisoning by nicotine.
What is a heart attack
Myocardial infarction - a severe syndrome, occurring with different intensity, symptoms and localization. Depending on this and decided to classify it.
Classification by area,
Distinguish between the types of heart attacks land areas of necrosis, releasing such their form:
- Small focal;
- History of large.
Small focal myocardial infarction is the most easy and favorable in terms of forecast form, occurring without formation of aneurysms and ruptures inthe cardiac muscle. Characterized by small foci of necrosis. Also in this form extremely rare phenomena are ventricular fibrillation, asystole and heart failure.
Large-focal infarction means necrosis of large areas of the myocardium, as a consequence, severe clinical picture and a prolonged period of treatment during which may develop many complications until a second heart attack and death in patients.
It is important to know the history of large periods of flow for THEM to imagine how long it would take a sick person for the treatment of scarring and heart damage.
- The acute phase (duration from half an hour to 120 minutes from the onset of symptoms of myocardial necrosis);
- Acute phase: its duration is from two to ten days. In this time interval nekrotizirovannye areas of myocardium subjected to melting (iamalele);
- The subacute period - the period of time during which it begins to form scar at the site of necrosis;
- Post-infarct period, lasting from three months to six months, means the complete formation of the scar and damaged myocardium adaptation to new conditions.
This periodization shows that the treatment of infarction, healing and adaptation takes a long time, during which it is necessary not only to adhere to therapeutic schemes but many medical advice on nutrition, emotional and physical stress.
Classification of localization
Myocardial infarction - vascular accident, the localization of which may be different. So, in some cases, it affects the anterior or posterior wall of the left ventricle, called the anterior and posterior infarction.
With the defeat of the lower wall develops so-called lower (basal) heart attack. If you suffer from interventricular septum, then that condition is classified as septal disaster. It happens that, while necrosis affects multiple walls then develops a circular form of a heart attack.
The ventricular wall consists of several layers. A heart attack can affect them both partially and fully.
Depending on the depth of necrosis it is divided into:
- The upper subendocardialnah;
Acute myocardial infarction transmural forms are the most severe and dangerous type of syndrome, because it directly affects all the layers of the wall. If other varieties of the syndrome may occur in the form of small lesions, transmural infarction is always only history of large.
The many faces of a syndrome
A heart attackthe myocardium has many variants of symptoms - from slight General discomfort to severe pain in the chest, accompanied by clammy, cold sweat, fear of death, dizziness, severe weakness, shortness of breath, fast and sharp drop in blood pressure.
There are other conditions in which similar symptoms are observed:
- The prolonged attack ischemic heart disease, unstable angina;
- Panic attack;
- Perforated ulcer of the stomach;
- Pulmonary embolism;
- An aortic dissection;
- An attack of intercostal neuralgia;
- Cervical-thoracic osteochondrosis;
Some of these conditions, though very unpleasant, but threat of life is not present, others are also serious and require immediate action - call team of physicians, hospitalization, emergency treatment, or surgery.
A heart attack without pain?
A very special form of heart attack painless: it flows without the typical set of complaints, causing sudden death or incidental finding on ECG during the examination for any other reason.
A myocardial infarction is very common among diabetics. Because of the deep metabolic disorders in the body, the nerve endings lose their sensitivity, so patients do not feel pain in the rapidly developing necrosis of the heart muscle. Complaints confined to dizziness, migrenepodobnaya headache, fatigue.
Who is at risk?
The highest risk to transfer a heart attack have people in medical history which includes the following factors:
The older the person, whether man or woman, the higher the risk of cardiovascular catastrophes (heart attack or stroke) due to the fact that the blood vascular and heart muscle with age wear.
Steadily increased and poorly controlled AD creates excessive strain on the heart.
As a result of constant stress myocardium wears out faster, which leads to heart attack even in relatively young patients.
Problems adds atherosclerosis, which is diagnosed almost without exception in people over forty years. His culprits - the food, in abundance containing TRANS fats and hidden salt and chemical fillers. Large load on the blood vascular also pose without measure used alcohol, cigarettes.
Elevated levels of blood glucose greatly accelerates the formation of atherosclerotic deposits on the vessel walls.
Plaques narrow the lumen, the circulation, causing ischemic heart disease - chronicexsanguination myocardial regions.
In some of the best women who have not reached menopause, their heart muscle is under the protection of the hormone estrogen regulates the activity of the reproductive system. With the onset of menopause and decrease in estrogen production, the risk of heart attack grows significantly, if a woman is more atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes.
Myocardial infarction can occur in quite young women who have undergone surgical removal of the ovaries in connection with cancer and for various reasons are not receiving hormone replacement therapy.
The reason is the same as with menopause: lack of estrogen in the body and lack natural protection of the heart muscle.
Its fatal role played by stress, chronic fatigue, a significant excess of the adequate level of physical and mental stress. Most often, the myocardial infarction occurs in people whose work is related high responsibility: among his victims can be counted many of the leaders of different rank.
Heavy operations and trauma
Death from the unexpected heart attack of a myocardium directly into the surgical table may occur during surgery for bypass surgery or stenting of the heart, operations on vascular of the legs.
In addition, the myocardial infarction itself poses a serious threat to human life, it is fraught and a lot less dangerous complications.
They can be linked directly with subsequent cardiac disorders and somatic disorders and mental nature.
Complications of myocardial infarction associated with cardiac activity can be divided into three groups:
To electrical complications include various arrhythmias (bradiaritmii, tachyarrhythmia, arrhythmia), conduction disorders (e.g. AV-blockade). They often develop on the background of large-focal myocardial infarction. Not being critical threat to life, such cases still require urgent correction.
Hemodynamic complications arise when violation of the pumping function of the heart or mechanical damage - rupture of papillary muscle, interventricular septum or free wall, left ventricular aneurysm.
Reactive complications include thromboembolism, early postinfarction angina, epistemologically pericarditis, and others.
How to help the patient with a heart attack
At the onset of symptoms, forcing to suspect the heartdisaster, you need to act quickly and competently: emergency treatment of myocardial infarction more effectively than previously provided.
Here is a sample algorithm of actions:
- Lay the patient open gates clothing, loosen the tie and belt on the trousers.
- Let dissolve a pill or two of nitroglycerin swallow the aspirin if person is conscious.
- Call the doctors, clearly describing the Manager of all complaints and what you see yourself.
Description the medical team will hold an emergency diagnosis, administered analgesics, tranquilizers, and other drugs for relief of angina attack, be offered admission and take patient to the hospital.
Emergency diagnosis includes a survey of the patient or causing the ambulance people, physical examination and ECG.
What does the ECG?
The survey and physical examination make the doctor suspect a heart attack, but of crucial importance for the production of preliminary and final diagnoses are the data of electrocardiography and blood test for CPK - markers of a heart attack.
ECG in myocardial infarction has the following features:
- When small focal infarct in the ribbon visible negative symmetric T wave (intramural form) or the offset segment S-T below the contours if the upper subendocardialnah myocardial infarction.
- With history of large disaster appears on the ECG the Q wave, the amplitude of the R wave decreases. Sometimes he disappears, but formed a complex QS (transmural infarction).
ECG in myocardial infarction determines not only the type of disaster, but the periods of its flow: each of them has its own picture.
Thus, in the acute period of segment S-T rises above the contour of the T wave is not detected. For the subacute period is characterized by the appearance of a negative T wave and the omission of the segment.
On post-infarction phase are clearly visible teeth Q and T, isoelectrical segment S-T.
The treatment of heart attack is strictly in a specialized hospital or in therapy in the absence of the cardiology Department.
How to avoid the tragedy
Prevention of myocardial infarction - the problem is multidimensional, so should be addressed in several directions:
- Control of arterial pressure and cardiac activity as such;
- AD treatment of atherosclerosis;
- Power supply with reduced fat, salt, sugar, preservatives;
- Support for normal weight, if necessary - reduce them;
- The provision of adequate physical and physical activity;
- Reducing emotional stress;
- Abandonment of Smoking and overuse of alcohol.
Hypertension can long occur almost asymptomatic or with minimal complaints. From the constantly increased pressure will inevitably suffer heart because it is forced to pump much larger volumes of blood than you need.
Pressure control, regular monitoring from the experts, treatment of hypertension significantly reduces the risk of heart attack.
To reduce the bad cholesterol, responsible for the appearance of atherosclerotic plaques, it is necessary not only a special diet, but also taking statins - drugs that regulate the fat content in the blood.
Food should be not only fresh and delicious: it must be useful. A reasonable diet, which is balanced, and the chemical composition of foods, helps prevent atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart attacks and strokes.
Preventive nutrition is the rejection of any food and food containing a lot of heavy and artificial fats, salt, sugar, flavor enhancers. Menu every person from childhood should be enough fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, seafood, low-fat milk beverages.
Caution will have to treat the eggs, white bread, sweets purchased.
Watching the weight
Maintaining a healthy weight in accordance with age and growth - efficient prevention of myocardial infarction, as the people slim and fit, the load on blood vascular and heart optimal.
If you have extra pounds, have to lose weight.
Protect the nerves and General health
Heavy stress on the heart creating not only pounds of excess weight, but all that got us worried: due to worries the heart is forced to beat faster, pumping hundreds of liters of the same "extra" blood. Don't be nervous.
Each puff of a cigarette and every glass of alcohol effect on the myocardium as a poison and kill heart cells. Do not smoke and limit alcohol to a minimum.
Not necessarily to spend hours in the gym and relaxed enough for daily walks. The more you walk let your heart gets used to physical stress.
All these measures will help to keep blood vascular and heart healthy - do not neglect your health!