Diagnosis and treatment of hypertension
One of the most common problems of the cardiovascular system is hypertension. The main symptom of this state of constantly high blood pressure, which gradually leads to disruption of the integrity of the blood vascular and reduce the functional ability of the heart. It is fraught with serious complications, such as angina, heart failure, heart attack, stroke.
High blood pressure can be caused by pathology of internal organs, but often this link is missing. Then diagnosed essential hypertension, yet it is called primary.
The causes of the disease
Medical science has not yet established the specific causes of this disease. What is clear is that essential hypertension is a multifactorial disease. Better to not identify the causes, risk factors, status, and characteristics of the organism that provoke hypertension of this type. For example, it is proved that prolonged exposure to stress or emotional tension causes a reaction of small blood vascular. This reaction results in an increase in their tone, which leads to an increase in pressure.
It is seen that excessive salt intake increases the amount of fluid in the body. The longer it is, the higher the blood pressure. Almost always there is an increase of blood pressure in obesity. It was also noted that the decrease in body mass leads to a decrease in pressure, even without treatment. For example, the loss of each 10 kg reduces pressure to 10 mm Hg. article
A major role in the development of essential hypertension have genetic factors. Often this disease can be traced in families of several generations. Perhaps this is due to the characteristics of the structure of cell membranes, which is transmitted at the genetic level.
With age, the body increasingly evident, the processes of aging. The walls of the vascular become thinner, their gleam is narrowed, and the tone falls. For these reasons, older people are more susceptible to develop arterial hypertension. Most often it manifests in men.
The main risk factors
- Acute and chronic stress;
- Genetic and constitutional features;
- Regular use of alcohol;
- Improper diet;
- The impact of harmful substances associated with professional activity.
- Male gender.
How does arterial hypertension
The disease develops gradually. At first, essential hypertension may not be felt and be asymptomatic. However, as the progression causes modifications in blood vascular and internal organs, which inevitably affects the General condition of the person.
Signs of the disease may occur during hypertensive crises when blood pressure rises sharply. There may be emergency conditions that require medical attention.
- Headaches and dizziness;
- Nausea and even vomiting;
- Chest pain;
- Shortness of breath;
- Heart palpitations;
- The feeling of fear;
- General weakness, fatigue.
This set of symptoms does not always lead the patient to the doctor. Often people perceive them as a sign of fatigue or overwork. But gradually the situation worsens and the symptoms intensify.
In this case, note the following manifestations:
- flies flashing before my eyes;
- noise in the ears;
- redness of the face;
- excessive sweating.
The stage of primary hypertension
- In the first stage there are no obvious signs of illness. It can last up to 20 years. Although people did not make any complaints, pressures have increased slightly, the vascular are experiencing more than the normal condition loads. The main danger is an increased risk of developing heart failure and stroke. At the first stage of essential hypertension, this risk is increased in 5-6 times.
- The second stage as well as the first, very often occurs without overt symptoms. However, the examination revealed problems in the so-called target organs: brain, heart, kidneys. The risk of complications (heart failure, stroke, heart attack) even more.
- In the third stage, already showing a few of the possible symptoms of as develop the vascular lesions of atherosclerosis. The risk of heart attack and stroke becomes very high. With the defeat of coronary atherosclerosis detected angina.
How to identify the disease
Diagnosis of this type of hypertension is very important in terms of further preservation of health and prevention of complications such as ischemic stroke, treatment of which can drag on for months. For the timely detection of problems requires regular measurement of blood pressure. If it is higher than 140/90 mm Hg. article, you need to consult a specialist, preferably as soon as possible.
Possible complications of the disease
In identifying the high numbersblood pressure three times consecutively diagnosed hypertension. However, remember the rules of blood pressure measurement, because their failure can lead to the production of false diagnosis. The patient during this procedure should be sure that often distorts the results.
Next, you'll need additional examination. They will help to identify any existing damage to the heart, blood vascular, kidneys, or brain. Also conducting a study of the retinal vascular, blood and urine.
How is the treatment of primary hypertension
Most important in identifying this disease - to reconsider and optimize the way of life. Otherwise, no medications will have the desired effect. On the first two stages it is possible to remedy the problem only through adjustment of lifestyle.
You should stop Smoking, significantly reduce (and preferably eliminate altogether) the use of alcohol. Useful would be to limit salt in the diet and normalization of body weight. To lose weight it is not necessary to resort to special diets. Enough to limit fatty and sugary foods, eliminating all harmful products, and reduce portions at every meal. A reasonable physical activity helps in weight reduction and strengthens the heart muscle and improves the condition of blood vascular.
If lifestyle changes had no effect, then drug therapy is prescribed.
Group of drugs
- ACE inhibitors;
- Antiadrenergic drugs.
If necessary, apply other medications. All medications are prescribed by taking into account concomitant diseases, characteristics of the organism, possible contraindications and side effects.
In the treatment of primary hypertension in the third stage it is necessary to conduct activities on prevention of complications. If they have occurred, then the patient needs additional therapy. With such complications as angina pectoris, treatment of folk remedies can have a positive effect only when the first manifestations of coronary vascular. In the future, when developing a significant deficiency in the supply of heart blood angina, be the the necessary drugs from the group of nitrates, because the treatment folk remedies is insufficient.
The most severe complications of hypertension, heart attack, and ischemic stroke, require immediate serious treatment.
Therefore it is necessary to be attentive to their health and to take all measures for their prevention. As a rule, essential (primary) hypertensionrequires lifelong therapy to normalize blood pressure isolated events is not possible.