Bradycardia in a child: types, symptoms and causes
Any faults in the work of the heart inevitably affect the health of the person. This also applies to bradycardia — one of the variants of arrhythmia, when the heart rate slows to 40-50 beats per minute. Bradycardia in children is uncommon, but requires mandatory medical supervision.
The fact that the delayed work of the heart all the time keeps the body in a state of oxygen starvation. As a result of disturbed functioning of internal systems and organs. If you leave the disease without attention may complete exhaustion of the heart muscle and subsequent tearing.
The causes of bradycardia
Heart rate in children varies with age. The norm is considered to be the following value:
- In infants is 120 beats/min;
- In children up to three years — 110;
- From three to nine— 90-100;
- From nine to twelve years — 80-85;
- Among adolescents, 70-75.
The decrease in values on 20 units or more is considered a sign of prediabetes in children. While taken into consideration the subjective peculiarities of rhythm, depending on weight, complexion, and temperament of the child.
HR decrease is due to a malfunction of the primary pacemaker — the sinus node, located in the heart muscle.
Negative changes in the conductive system of the body occur for the following reasons:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Fetal hypoxia;
- Violation of cerebral circulation of the newborn.
- Congenital heart defects (stenosis, defects, baffles, tetralogy of Fallot) and acquired (rheumatic heart disease);
- Inflammation of the heart muscle (endocarditis, myocarditis);
- Inadequate function of the thyroid gland;
- High intracranial pressure caused by the buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in any part of the brain;
- Infection, accompanied by dehydration and changes in electrolyte composition of the blood;
- Drug allergies;
- Overdose of therapeutic drugs;
- Lead poisoning and nicotine;
Bradycardia in a child is often accompanied by the rapid growth of the body, especially in puberty.
Teenagers at this time, prone to mood swings, stress, nervousness. The endocrine system manages the development of the heart and other organs. Failures occur in metabolic processes, accompanied by arrhythmia.
Symptoms of the disease
Bradycardia of the heart in children are mostly detected during medical examinations. But from the parentsdepends on many things. A child, especially a baby, can not clearly tell about your condition.
It is necessary to hurry to the specialist if the baby visible such deviations:
- A noticeable shortness of breath after playtime;
- Lethargy, weakness, drowsiness;
- Unexplained bouts of weakness, accompanied by drenching sweat;
- Poor appetite;
- Confusion, inattention, memory impairment;
- Dizziness, fainting spells;
- Jump in blood pressure;
- Chest pain;
- Swelling, pallor, cyanosis of nasolabial triangle;
The surest sign is a rare pulse.
Sometimes the number of heart rate decreases to 30. Counting them is possible, having pressed a finger on the radial artery on the wrist. The above symptoms indicate that the contractility of the heart muscle is disrupted, and the internal organs are in a state of hypoxia (lack of oxygen).
Bradiaritmiu detected by listening through a stethoscope with a simultaneous counting of heart rate. To accurately determine what the cause of bradycardia in children, they are referred to a pediatric cardiologist.
The specialist assigns a full examination:
- ECG with load tests (sit-UPS, Bicycle ergometry) or without them.
- Monitoring by the Holter during the day, if the ECG is uninformative.
- Ultrasound of the heart. The study will identify possible disease on.
- Chest x-ray. It will show signs of stagnation and change the size of the heart muscle.
- A blood test for electrolytes.
Child additionally sent to an endocrinologist to check the functional state of the thyroid gland, as well as to the neurologist to identify neurotic disorders.
The form and degree of bradycardia
According to the results of the ECG is determined by one of the forms of bradycardia:
- Sinus. In this case, the pattern of the heartbeat is not distorted: the impulse for contraction of the ventricles is supplied by the sinus node and passes along the specified path. Sinus bradycardia in children is associated with increased vagal tone (vagus). This nerve manages" slowing heart rate, and strain leads to an even more rare pulse.
- Heterotopic. An anomaly arises if the activity of the sinus node is suppressed. Then the conductor of the rhythm becomes another division of the heart. In children, this form is rare.
- Blockade of the cardiac muscle. Occurs when some of the electrical impulses does not reach the ventricles. Slows heart rate by 30-40 beats. A symptom of the embargo are frequent fainting and seizure activity.
In addition to the species there are several degreesbradycardia:
- Easy (heart rate 50-60 beats/min);
- Moderate (40-50 beats/min);
- Severe (less than 40 beats/min);
Light and moderate bradycardia in children for a lifetime of harmless, if not organic lesions of the heart. Most often, the child "outgrows" and heart rate is getting better by itself.
Severe dysfunction requires the attention of a specialist, since in the conditions of hypoxia develop disorders in the blood stream. Especially the system suffers intracranial arteries supplying the brain with oxygen.
Strategy and tactics of treatment
If the diagnosis is confirmed, little patient needs constant supervision of a cardiologist. Light and moderate bradycardia in children treatment is usually not required.
Here good help will be traditional methods, giving a long lasting effect with regular use:
- A mixture of equal parts of garlic, honey and lemon juice. Take 2 teaspoon before meals;
- A decoction of yarrow (50 g herb brew in 500 ml of water). Give the baby a spoonful before a meal;
- Walnuts for Breakfast;
- Infusion of pine branches;
- Strong tea;
- Introduction in the diet of marine algae and seafood.
To normalise heart rate helps the rational physical exercise — morning exercise, a long walk in the fresh air, swimming.
When expressed clinical symptoms of bradiaritmii caused by abnormalities of the heart or other organs, treat the underlying disease. To increase heart rate antiaritmicski use the following tools:
- Extracts of Siberian ginseng, belladonna, belladonna, ginseng.
The dosage is calculated by the cardiologist. Not arbitrarily interrupt the treatment, to reduce or increase the amount of medication.
Persistent, intractable treatment of arrhythmia is a categorical reason for hospitalization of the patient. In severe cases, shows the implantation of a pacemaker.
In respect of prognosis of bradycardia specifics in global medicine not. Because the threat itself is not an anomaly, and violations that occur on its background. In any case, seeing these symptoms in a child, do not rely on spontaneous healing. Without wasting time, consult pediatric cardiologist.