Methods of treatment and the causes of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries
Atherosclerosis is a pathological process characterized by gradual development. Intima of blood vascular accumulates cholesterol deposits that lead to plaque formation and compaction of the arterial wall.
In turn, this causes narrowing of the lumen and has a negative impact on the intensity of blood flow. Developing ishemizatsii tissues fed by those arteries.
The reasons for the formation of coronary atherosclerosis
The main cause of atherosclerosis is high blood levels of low density lipoproteins. Cholesterol levels in medical practice is measured in mmol/L. If the values are in the range of 4 mmol/l and less, is the norm.
Anything above this value is consistent with the high level. The risk of coronary sclerosing changes increased from 4.2 to 4.9 mmol/L. the Level of lipoproteins in excess of 4.9 mmol/l - is a direct indication for immediate hospitalization and subsequent treatment.
The "bad" cholesterol is formed for several reasons, the first is the improper diet when the person is abusing of fried, salty, spicy. The situation is complicated by excessive alcohol consumption, excessive production of cholesterol by the liver, slowing digestion, disorders of the processes of fat metabolism.
By precipitating factors include Smoking habit, hypertension, a passive lifestyle and lack of exercise.
Atherosclerosis often develops as a complication of diabetes that most often affects the blood vascular of the lower extremities that eventually leads to the so-called "diabetic feet" and gangrene. The most dangerous form of the disease expressed as lesion of the heart coronary vascular.
Stenosis of the coronary arteries
Atherosclerosis is the process that begins its development at a young age and with time progresses. First change is microscopic and does not affect the functionality of the arterial wall. Then formed a small hill, growing up cholesterol plaques.
If education does not block the lumen of the vessel by more than 50%, it can be recognized by doctors as unimportant and pathology falls under the definition destinationuser of atherosclerosis. But in the case when the plaques grow to large sizes and their growth does not stop, which leads to disruption of blood flow in the heart is already classified as stenosing atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.
These terms are used only to clarify the nature of the destructive process, and rarely can be part of the official diagnostic conclusion. Because destinatarului sclerosis is noted in almost all people over the age of 45.
Pathological sclerosing process
Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, called coronary also leads to destruction of the myocardium. Clinically it is manifested in a heart attack, infarction, angina, with a typical pain in the sternum, and the rhythm of the heartbeat. Signs of cardiac decompensation cause sudden death.
In special cases the surface blastomogenic formations broken and then formed blood clots that become a significant barrier to blood flow. The clinical picture of this complication of coronary heart disease in one of its forms.
Considering angina, whether it is at rest or stress, we can talk about more favourable prognosis. Myocardial changes in heart muscle, an irreversible and she dies.
Coronary atherosclerosis, heart attack catches the patient at any time, regardless of sleep state or wakefulness. But this usually occurs in the early morning, from 4 to 10 hours.
It was at this time in the peripheral blood increases the level of adrenaline, which provokes the rupture of the surface of a cholesterol plaque.
Classic symptoms aterosclerozei blockade
Symptoms of atherosclerosis depend on what vascular struck disease:
- Aortic atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries manifests itself in coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease. This means that regular patient complains of chest pain, typical for angina. As well as on arrhythmia and constant swelling in the feet and legs.
- Atherosclerosis of the brain is different headaches, dizziness, poor memory and concentration. The patient complains of mental decline, lack of health, decrease in intellectual capacity, depression capacity for reasoning and uncontrolled personality changes.
- Atherosclerosis of the extremities causes pain in the muscles during walking, intermittent claudication, sensitivity to cold in the legs. Sometimes convulsions occur and depigmentation of the skin of the lower extremities.
In very advanced conditions the person can meet the characteristics of all three types of atherosclerosis. In this case, traditional medical treatment will not have any effect.
The methodology of treatment and prevention
To prevent the development of such conditions quite real. To this end, the people who belong to a risk group, should seriously attend to the issues of primary prevention. First atherosclerosis of the coronary vascular of the heart threatens those whose health family anamnesis.
The disease is so insidious that people with vascular obstruction, still continues to feel well and totally unaware of possible danger. No action has been taken and the patient for a long time do not seek medical help.
If the problem is diagnosed in disrepair, which happens most often, doctors are forced to resort not only to medications but also to cardiac surgery techniques. Surgery refers to a radical means of relief of pathological conditions, however, shows not all cardiac patients.
Surgical methods in the treatment of coronary obstruction
The most effective way to restore the vascular lumen and adequate blood supply to the myocardium is coronary artery bypass grafting in type. During the operation create new workarounds for the movement of blood. Manipulative is a very complex intervention, and in the course of performing bypass surgery there is always a risk of adverse outcome.
The essence of the operation consists in suturing of the autograft placed parallel to the narrowed areas of the coronary vessel.
This graft is obtained from a segment of healthy artery, dissected in a different area of the blood stream and withdrawn from the patient. To perform such a procedure is necessary open heart, and after the surgery the patient is a long-term recovery.
Equally effective and the second way is invasive endovascular surgery.
Its varieties include:
- balloon dilation;
- eximious laser angioplasty.
Patients suffer such interference is substantially easier because for these operations uncharacteristic extensive trauma to cardiac tissue and a large abdominal incision. In the area where the coronary artery narrows penetrate through Budennogo or arm vascular using radiological control.
Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart to annoy the patient, even after successful surgery. Whatever the chosen treatment option, people with this diagnosis all my life must adhere to a specific diet and taking prescribed medicines. Atherosclerosis as a pathology will not disappear.