How does arachnoiditis: are the symptoms and treatment of the disease
Arachnoiditis refers to a category of serous inflammations accompanied by the slowing of blood flow and increased permeability of the capillary walls. As a result of this inflammation liquid part of the blood penetrates through the walls into the surrounding soft tissue and stagnates in them.
Edema causes slight pain and a small increase in temperature, the functions of the inflamed organ affected moderately.
The greatest danger is persistent the considerable growth of connective tissue while ignoring the disease or no treatment. The latter is the cause of severe disorders in organs.
The mechanism of the disease
Arachnoiditis of the brain or spinal - serous inflammation of the special structure, located between the hard upper shell is soft and deep. It has the form of a thin web, for which he received the name arachnoid sheath. The structure is formed by connective tissue and forms the soft shell of the brain is so close a bond that they are considered together.
Spider soft shell is separated from the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. Here are the blood vascular that feed the structure.
Due to this structure, inflammation of the arachnoid is never local and applies to the entire system. The infection comes via hard or soft shell.
Inflammation in the arachnoiditis looks like a thickening and clouding of the shell. Between the vascular and spider structure, formation of adhesions that prevent the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. Over time, arachnoid cysts are formed.
Arachnoiditis causes an increase in intracranial pressure, which causes the formation of hydrocephalus by means of two mechanisms:
- insufficient outflow of fluid from the ventricles of the brain;
- the difficulty of absorption of cerebrospinal fluid through the outer shell.
The symptoms of the disease
Are a combination of signs of a cerebral disorder with some symptoms pointing to the primary site of damage.
When any variety of arachnoiditis exist following disorders:
- headache is usually the most intense in the morning can be accompanied by vomiting and nausea. Can be local in nature and appear when the effort is straining, trying to jump up, failed movement, which under the heel is a solid support;
- frequently there are sleep disturbances;
- marked irritability, impairedmemory, weakness, anxiety and so on.
As the arachnoid sheath is inflamed, the entire, to talk about the localization of the disease impossible. Under limited arachnoiditis imply pronounced grave violations at any site on the background of inflammation.
The location of the source of illness determines the following symptoms:
- convexital arachnoiditis provides a predominance of signs of irritation of the brain over a violation of functionality. It is expressed in convulsive seizures, similar to epileptic;
- when the edema is predominantly in the occipital part of falls vision and hearing. Observed loss of visual field, when the fundus points to the optic neuritis.
- appears excessive sensitivity to weather changes, accompanied by chills or sweating. Sometimes observed increase in weight sometimes thirst;
- the bridge arachnoiditis cerebellar angle is accompanied by paroxysmal pain in the head, roaring noise in the ears and dizziness. This significantly disturbed the balance;
- when arachnoiditis occipital tanks appear symptoms of damage to the facial nerves. This disease develops acutely and is accompanied by a significant increase in temperature.
The treatment is conducted only after determining the source of inflammation and damage assessment.
The causes of the disease
Inflammation and further formation of arachnoid cysts are associated with primary damage mechanical properties or having an infectious nature. However, in many cases the root cause of the inflammation remains unknown.
The main factors are the following:
- acute or chronic infection - pneumonia, inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, sore throat, meningitis, etc.;
- chronic intoxication - alcohol poisoning, lead poisoning and so on;
- trauma - post-traumatic cerebral arachnoiditis is often the result of contusions of the spine and traumatic brain injuries, even closed;
- occasionally be the cause of disorders in the endocrine system.
The types of the disease
In the diagnosis of disease using several classification methods associated with the localization and course of the disease.
In most cases the disorder does not lead to the emergence of severe pain or fever, making it difficult to diagnose and is the cause of delayed treatment to the doctor. But there are exceptions.
- Acute over -there is, for example, when arachnoiditis big tanks, accompanied by vomiting, increased temperature and severe headache. This inflammation can be cured without consequences.
- Subacute - observed most often. At the same time combines a softly expressed symptoms common disorders - dizziness, insomnia, weakness, and signs of suppression of the functionality of certain areas of the brain - hearing, vision, equilibrium, etc.
- Chronic - if you ignore the disease, the inflammation quickly becomes chronic. The symptoms of cerebral disorder become more stable and the symptoms associated with hearth disease, gradually increase.
Localization of arachnoiditis
All diseases of this kind are divided into two main groups - cerebral arachnoiditis, that is, inflammation of the arachnoid of the brain and spinal cord - inflammation of the spinal cord. Localization of brain disease is divided into convexital and basal.
Since the treatment involves exposure primarily on the most affected areas, the classification related to the area of greatest damage in more detail.
- Cerebral arachnoiditis localized on the base, on the convex surface, also in zadnescheinah fossa. Symptoms combine symptom General disorders and related inflammation.
- When convexital arachnoiditis affects the surface of the cerebral hemispheres and gyrus. Since these areas are associated with motor and sensory functions, the resulting pressure of the cyst leads to the violation of skin sensitivity-either dulling or severe exacerbation and a painful reaction to the action of heat and cold. Irritation in these areas leads to the emergence of seizures, type of epileptic.
- Adhesive cerebral arachnoiditis is diagnosed is extremely difficult. Due to the lack of localizing symptoms are observed only General, and they are inherent in many diseases.
- Optic-chiasm arachnoiditis refers to inflammation of the base. The most distinctive feature on the background of cerebral symptoms is the loss of vision. The disease develops slowly, it is characterized by alternating eye disease: vision decreases due to the compression of the optic nerve in the formation of adhesions. In the diagnosis of this form of disease is very significant examination of the fundus and field of vision. There is a dependence of the degree of violation stages of the disease.
- Inflammation web of the sheath of the posterior fossa - spread a variety of diseases. For its acute form it is characterized by increased intracranial pressure, headache, vomiting, nausea. In subacute course these symptoms are smoothed out, and first nominateddisorders of the vestibular apparatus and synchronized movements. The patient loses balance when tilting the head, for example. When walking, leg motion is not synchronized with the movement and angle of the torso that forms a peculiar uneven gait.
Cystic arachnoiditis in this area has different symptoms, depending on the nature of the adhesions. If the pressure increases, the disease can last for years, appearing temporary loss of synchronization or gradually deteriorating balance.
The worst consequence of arachnoiditis - clotting or abrupt obstruction in the damaged area, which can lead to extensive circulatory problems and cerebral ischemia.
Ischemia of the brain.
Spinal arachnoiditis klassificeret type - cystic, adhesive and adhesive-cystic.
- Adhesive often occurs without any lasting signs. May be marked in intercostal neuralgia, sciatica and the like.
- Cystic arachnoiditis causes severe back pain usually on one side, which then captures a second side. The movement is difficult.
- Cystic-adhesive arachnoiditis manifests as loss of sensation of the skin and difficulty in movements. The disease is very diverse and requires a thorough diagnosis.
Diagnosis of the disease
Even the most pronounced symptoms of arachnoiditis - dizziness, headaches, accompanied by nausea and vomiting, often cause the patient sufficient concerns. Attacks happen from 1 to 4 times a month, and only the most serious of them last long enough to finally get sick to draw attention to themselves.
Since the symptoms of the disease coincide with a lot of other cerebral disorders, in order to make a proper diagnosis, it is necessary to resort to a number of research methods. Appointed a neurologist.
- Examination by an ophthalmologist - optic-chiasm arachnoiditis refers to the most common types of the disease. 50% of patients with inflammation of the posterior cranial fossa that is fixed by the stagnation in the region of the optic nerve.
- MRI the accuracy of the method reaches 99%. MRI allows to establish the degree of changes of the arachnoid, to fix the location of the cyst and rule out other diseases with similar symptoms - tumors, abscesses.
- X-ray - it can help detect intracranial hypertension.
- A blood test is necessary to establish the absence or presence of infection, immunodeficiency and other things. Thus determine the root causearachnoiditis.
Only after the examination, the specialist, and maybe more than one, shall appoint the appropriate treatment. The course usually requires repetition in 4-5 months.
Treatment of inflammation of the meninges is carried out in several stages.
- You first need to remove the primary disease - sinusitis, meningitis. Using antibiotics, antihistamines and desensitizing - diphenhydramine, for example, or the pain.
- The second stage is prescribed a biodegradable tools that help to normalize intracranial pressure and improve cerebral metabolism. It can be biological stimulants and drugs iodide - potassium iodide. Injection used lidaza and pirogenal.
- Used decongestant and diuretic drugs - furosemid, glycerin, prevents the accumulation of fluid.
- If you experience seizures are prescribed antiepileptic drugs.
When cystic-adhesive arachnoiditis, if the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid is very difficult and conservative treatment does not give results are of neurosurgical surgery to remove adhesions and cysts.
Arachnoiditis is quite successfully treated with timely treatment to the doctor, especially at the stage of acute inflammation disappears without consequences. In respect of life the prognosis is almost always favourable. At the transition of the disease into a chronic condition with frequent relapses rapidly decline, which requires the transfer to lighter work.