Causes and symptoms of allergic vasculitis
Allergic vasculitis refers to a group of diseases caused by immunopathological inflammation of the blood vascular. Can be affected the blood vascular of different caliber arteries, veins, arterioles, venules and capillaries. And as the blood flow through the damaged vascular continues, the normal consequence of vasculitis is the lesion and inflammation of an organ or tissue, which served a vulnerable system.
The mechanism of the disease
The normal mechanism of the immune system approximately as follows: Union, posing a threat to the organism being studied, in the literal sense of the word empirically. The result is the development of specific complexes of antibodies designed to destroy the hazardous substances. In some cases, the body is unable to synthesize, and such substances are administered artificially is a well-known vaccinations.
After the destruction of the virus, compounds, microorganisms, antibodies are destroyed. Information about their structure is stored, and if the body again fall into a dangerous substance, antibodies are produced immediately.
In immunopathological diseases the emerging picture seems different.
- The ingress of substances, recognized as the allergen, it causes the synthesis of the corresponding antibodies. The complexes are in the blood plasma, and if the allergen is again in the blood stream, bind it, forming an immune complex.
- The compound reacts with the membrane of endothelial cells, anchored in the vessel: therefore, affects primarily the venules, blood pressure is small.
- Complexes provoke an allergic inflammation, which leads to thinning and destruction of the vessel wall.
- Increases of vascular-tissue permeability, the walls are impregnated with a protein and fluids, in the tissues of inflammation are cellular elements - leukocytes, erythrocytes. This, in turn, causes further inflammation of the perivascular tissue.
Most vasculitis develops in small vascular, as the smaller the diameter, the thinner the wall. Unfortunately, there are diseases and larger, deep-seated vascular, which is extremely difficult to diagnose and treat.
The clinical picture
Allergic vasculitis differs from other forms because the external symptoms most often affect the skin. In appearance they are no different from allergic rash. The rash is symmetrical, usually on the anterolateral surface of the skin of the thighs, hips, buttocks, rarely the shoulder, face, trunk. This is due to the fact that the venules in the lower limbs are subjected to high load and always the more weak in comparison with the sauces in other parts of the body.
style="font-size:medium;">the Symptoms of vasculitis are:
- vascular stains may result from vasodilation. When you press this spot disappears, then re appears;
- erythematous - point rash of red spots with clear contours. The spots fade with time and disappears within a few days, if you avoid the room with the allergen;
- purpura - more serious skin lesions. This vascular spots appear in areas where there was hemorrhage. Fuzzy, the edges look blurred, over time, change color from blue to yellowish. Their appearance can be confused with bruises, but the localization of them atypical;
- urticaria - seal skin that looks like blisters, but without a cavity. Accompanying symptoms include itching and General malaise;
- papule - nodular skin seal pink in color;
- vesicles - vesicles with bloody contents, are formed in the center of the papules;
- bullae - vesicles with a large diameter more than 5 mm. Anterior to themselves, forming erosion - areas of skin without the epidermis.
4 latest of a rash and hematoma can cause necrosis of the skin. In their place are formed trophic ulcers and scars. The last treatment is difficult, since, among other things, erosive skin areas easily become infected and become a hotbed of purulent inflammation.
Common symptoms that accompany vasculitis include weakness, fever, loss of appetite.
The classification of diseases
Now the common classification of vasculitis of the skin do not exist. These include several dozens of medicine, with some clinical similarity. The simplest division is connected with the source of the disease.
- Primary vasculitis is an independent disease, caused by the immediate action of allergen: drugs, intoxication, food, hypothermia, or, conversely, prolonged exposure to the sun. For example, toxic and allergic vasculitis, manifested as a reaction to the substance. Treatment in such cases is to cease contact with the allergen.
- Secondary - occurs as a result of some diseases, e.g., rheumatic.
Another classification is associated with the caliber of the affected vascular:
- dermal vasculitis or surface, is associated with inflammation of the small venous vascular of the skin. Prolonged treatment, but this disease does not give serious complications;
- style="font-size:larger;">dermo-hypodermal - for example, the syndrome of Cerca-Strauss;
- hypodermal - striking deep-seated large veins and arteries. Symptoms include joint pain and muscle pain.
On pathogenetic principle, that is, the level of education of abnormal proteins or lack the necessary enzymes, disease klassificeret in the following way.
- Leukocytoclastic - a common feature is the decay of nuclei of granular leukocytes, which indicates histological examination. Symptoms include erythematous and vascular spots on hands and feet, rarely on face. The rash is accompanied by fever, weakness.
- Rheumatic systemic vasculitis associated with rheumatic diseases: lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis. Skin lesions are accompanied by injuries of the joints. The characteristic yellow-green spots are formed in the joints, which indicates that local hemorrhaging.
- Granulomatous - associated with the formation of intra - and extravascular granules. On the surface of the skin does appear cyanotic papules prone to necrosis. Itching and pain they cause, but, however rapidly form ulcers formed in the scars. Other symptoms range from lung disease - the most common, to intestinal infarction.
- Periarteritis nodosa is characterized by a change in branching pattern of the skin, but is associated with damage to the walls of the arteries leads to organ pathologies. Diagnosis and treatment challenging. The disease is accompanied by fever, rapid weight loss, weakness, and high blood pressure.
- Giant cell arteryt - strikes with the wall of large arteries characterized by the formation of giant multinucleated cells, forming a granuloma. Symptoms include severe headache, tenderness of the skin, impaired vision.
Diagnosis of vasculitis is based not so much on symptoms as on the assessment of the rate of change. A requirement for histologic examination of the affected area and consultation with the necessary specialists.
Treatment of vasculitis
Treatment is complex and is developed with consideration not only of the nature of the disease, but the individual reactions of the patient. The most important factor is the cessation of contact with the source of Allergy if it is external in nature: a drug, product, chemical agent and so on.
Treatment in the first stage of invasive. As a rule, if the disease is not running, enough drugs.
- Antiplatelet - chimes, aspirin,reduce the risk of thrombosis.
- Vascular protectors - askorutin, dicynone, reduce the permeability of the vessel walls.
- Inhibitors of proteolytic enzyme - aminocaproic acid, stimulates tissue respiration, improve blood circulation.
- Antihistamines - suprastin, aerius, block the action of histamine.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs for General use.
The majority of allergic vasculitis and related major diseases causing fever and weakness. Therefore, the treatment includes adhering to a diet that excludes foods that can cause allergies - chocolate, tropical fruits, bed rest, drinking plenty of fluids.
In the acute phase appoint intravenous physiological solutions in order to ensure the speedy conclusion of the decay products.
In severe cases, as the treatment is applied hemosorption - a procedure of cleaning the blood from the immune complexes, antigens and so on.
Allergic vasculitis - the disease is common. While the exact causes of its appearance to indicate it is not yet possible. Suspected allergic nature of the rash can be on the basis of already known information: an established history of contact with the source that triggered the appearance of skin lesions. However, for accurate diagnosis requires a study confirming the presence of antibodies to a known allergen. In any case, ignore the stain it - the treatment is necessary.
We recommend you to read how is the treatment of hemorrhagic vasculitis.